case studies undp: community markets for conservation (comaco), zambia

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  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: COMMUNITY MARKETS FOR CONSERVATION (COMACO), Zambia

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    Equator Initiative Case StudiesLocal sustainable development solutions for people, nature, and resilient communities

    Zambia

    COMMUNITY MARKETS FORCONSERVATION (COMACO)

    Empowered live

    Resilient nation

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    UNDP EQUATOR INITIATIVE CASE STUDY SERIES

    Local and indigenous communities across the world are advancing innovative sustainable development solutions that woor people and or nature. Few publications or case studies tell the ull story o how such initiatives evolve, the breadth

    their impacts, or how they change over time. Fewer still have undertaken to tell these stories with community practitionthemselves guiding the narrative.

    To mark its 10-year anniversary, the Equator Initiative aims to ll this gap. The ollowing case study is one in a growing ser

    that details the work o Equator Prize winners vetted and peer-reviewed best practices in community-based environmenconservation and sustainable livelihoods. These cases are intended to inspire the policy dialogue needed to take local succto scale, to improve the global knowledge base on local environment and development solutions, and to serve as models

    replication. Case studies are best viewed and understood with reerence to The Power o Local Action: Lessons rom 10 Yearsthe Equator Prize, a compendium o lessons learned and policy guidance that draws rom the case material.

    Click on the map to visit the Equator Initiatives searchable case study database.

    EditorsEditor-in-Chie: Joseph CorcoranManaging Editor: Oliver HughesContributing Editors: Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Erin Lewis, Whitney Wilding

    Contributing WritersEdayatu Abieodun Lamptey, Erin Atwell, Toni Blackman, Jonathan Clay, Joseph Corcoran, Larissa Currado, Sarah Gordon, Oliver Hughe

    Wen-Juan Jiang, Sonal Kanabar, Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Rachael Lader, Patrick Lee, Erin Lewis, Jona Liebl, Mengning Ma,Mary McGraw, Gabriele Orlandi, Brandon Payne, Juliana Quaresma, Peter Schecter, Martin Sommerschuh, Whitney Wilding, Luna Wu

    DesignOliver Hughes, Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Amy Korngiebel, Kimberly Koserowski, Erin Lewis, John Mulqueen, Lorena de la Par

    Brandon Payne, Mariajos Satizbal G.

    AcknowledgementsThe Equator Initiative acknowledges with gratitude Community Markets or Conservation (COMACO), and in particular the guidance ainputs o Dale Lewis, Ruth Nabuyanda, and Japhet Seulu. All photo credits courtesy o COMACO. Maps courtesy o CIA World Factboand Wikipedia.

    Suggested CitationUnited Nations Development Programme. 2012. Community Markets or Conservation (COMACO), Zambia. Equator Initiative Case Stu

    Series. New York, NY.

    http://equatorinitiative.org/images/stories/events/2012events/Book_Launch/power%2520of%2520local%2520action%2520final%25202013%25208mb.pdfhttp://equatorinitiative.org/images/stories/events/2012events/Book_Launch/power%2520of%2520local%2520action%2520final%25202013%25208mb.pdfhttp://equatorinitiative.org/images/stories/events/2012events/Book_Launch/power%2520of%2520local%2520action%2520final%25202013%25208mb.pdfhttp://equatorinitiative.org/images/stories/events/2012events/Book_Launch/power%2520of%2520local%2520action%2520final%25202013%25208mb.pdfhttp://equatorinitiative.org/index.php?option=com_winners&view=casestudysearch&Itemid=858
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    PROJECT SUMMARYZambias Luangwa Valley is the setting or a pioneeringinitiative that is transorming the local economy and reducinghuman pressures wildlie. Led by the Wildlie ConservationSociety, Community Markets or Conservation (COMACO)has brought about substantial livelihoods and conservationbenets through a producer group model o collectivelearning, reaching more than 40,000 arming householdswith training in conservation arming techniques.

    Farmers are invited to become COMACO members in returnor adopting a package o eco-agriculture and organic

    arming techniques that both reduce the environmentalimpact o arming and drastically improve agricultural yields.COMACO purchases arm commodities through a networko depots and collection centres, alleviating transport costsand guaranteeing a premium or organic produce throughthe payment o an annual dividend to member armers.The initiative has been particularly successul in convertingpoachers to armers.

    KEY FACTS

    EQUATOR PRIZE WINNER: 2008

    FOUNDED: 2003

    LOCATION: Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    BENEFICIARIES: more than 40,000 rural households

    BIODIVERSITY: North and South Luangwa National Parks

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    COMMUNITY MARKETS FORCONSERVATION (COMACO)Zambia

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Background and Context 4

    Key Activities and Innovations 6

    Biodiversity Impacts 8

    Socioeconomic Impacts 9

    Policy Impacts 12

    Sustainability 13

    Replication 14

    Partners 14

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    Community Markets or Conservation (COMACO) promotesncome generation, biodiversity conservation, and ood security in

    ambias Luangwa Valley. The organization links more than 40,000ural households with lucrative and sustainable livelihood options,ncourages methods or improving agricultural outputs through

    conservation arming, and provides access to markets.

    Contrasting ecological wealth and economic poverty

    he Luangwa Valley represents a critical destination or tourism inambia, attracting great international interest or its large mammalopulations and sprawling wildlands. Annually, over 20,000 tourists

    isit its two main parks, North and South Luangwa National Parks,enerating over USD 15 million in tourism revenues. These parks

    rovide a relatively sae environment or over twenty large mammalpecies, including elephant, lion and wild dog. Surrounding these

    arks are community lands with human densities varying rom threeo more than ty people per km2, stretching rom the valley ooro surrounding plateau areas that constitute the valleys watershed.

    Average annual household income or these communities in 2004was below USD 100 in all but one area, and a signicant portion

    uered rom chronic ood shortages.

    Poverty, low yields and deorestation: a vicious cycle

    Farming is the main livelihood activity or Luangwa Valleys residconcentrated in alluvial soils along tributaries o the Luangwa RMaize is the staple crop, although a variety o grains, vegeta

    and ruits are grown. Trypanosomiasis has restricted cattle reawhile reliance on hand tillage largely restricts household plot

    to smallholder status. Traditional agricultural practices incluclearing and tree coppicing are common, with cut wood b

    burned or uel. Fallowing typically occurs at our to ten-year inteIn attempts to spur economic development in rural Zambia, lascale contract arming or out-grower schemes have prom

    household planting o cotton and tobacco. While these schehave been successul in brining capital to household producers,

    have also contributed to Zambias high rate o deorestation. Witchemical ertilizers, armers have begun changing plots every

    to three years, signicantly increasing the amount o cleared Despite its small size, Zambia is second in Arica and th inworld in terms o highest absolute annual loss o orest area.

    Deorestation and intensive arming have in turn led to decre

    in agricultural productivity. Combined with periods o poor rai

    Background and Context

    Table 1: Average household annual incomes or residents o Luangwa valley foor and plateauChies Area Year surveyed Households % ood secure Average income (USD)

    Valley areas (six chiedoms) 2001 1,065 34 $76.00

    Chie Chikomeni, plateau 2004 192 42.9 $83.50

    Chie Zumwanda, plateau 2004 517 63.1 $88.00

    Chie Mwasemphangwe, plateau 2004 460 60.4 $137.70

    Chie Magodi, plateau 2004 1,028 42.8 $90.00

    ource: COMACO.

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    armers overreliance on non-ood crops has let household incomesusceptible to commodity market uctuations, and has decreasedousehold ood security. Surveys have shown that when they are

    ood insecure, more than hal o armers in the Luangwa Valley turno poaching, setting wire snares or wildlie. A small percentage o

    esidents are proessional poachers, using locally made guns to huntvariety o species. Although currently less common, elephants and

    hinos were oten targeted as a commercial activity by organized

    roups rom outside the Valley. This has decimated wildlie numbersn the region. Other coping mechanisms or periods o drought

    nclude shing and timber-elling or charcoal production.

    ntroduction o sustainable agriculture

    hese conditions were extensively surveyed by a team o researchersed by the Wildlie Conservation Society (WCS). They identied low

    ousehold incomes and widespread ood insecurity as responsibleor the high level o poaching and snaring. In 2003, WCS introducedproducer group model or local armers, using market incentives to

    ncourage sustainable agricultural practices. Since then, COMACOsxtension ofcers have trained more than 40,000 armers in

    onservation arming techniques, which include dry-season landreparation using no or minimal tillage; repeated use o small basins

    or planting and or soil amendments such as compost; using cropesidues to suppress weed growth, return nutrients to the soil, andelp retain moisture, rather than burning them; and rotating

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