Buswelu, O.M. 2013

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<ol><li> 1. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL DROPOUTS ON CRIME INCREASE IN NYAMAGANA DISTRICT ONESMO MPUYA BUSWELU A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILIMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ADMINISTRATION, PLANNING AND POLICY STUDIES OF THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA 2013 </li><li> 2. 2 CERTIFICATION The undersigned certifies that he has read and hereby recommends for the acceptance by the Open University of Tanzania a dissertation titled An assessment of the effects of secondary school dropouts on crime increase in Nyamagana District in partial fullfiliment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Education in Administration, Planning and Policy Studies. ----------------------------------------------- Prof. Emmanuel Babyegeya (Supervisor) .............................................................. Date </li><li> 3. 3 COPYRIGHT No part of this dissertation may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transimitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the author or The Open University of Tanzania in that behalf. </li><li> 4. 4 DECLARATION I, Buswelu, Onesmo Mpuya declare that this dissertation is my own original work and that it has not been presented and will not be presented to any other higher learning insititution for a similar or any other degree award. ____________________________ Signature ____________________________ Date </li><li> 5. 5 DEDICATION This dissertation is dedicated to my beloved wife Paulina, my beloved mother Kwinoja and my beloved brother Martin. May the loving God bless you abandantly. </li><li> 6. 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I unquestionably cannot claim that the end product of this dissertation was only the result of my own sweat. I am obliged to a list of resourceful personnel who played the remarkable roles towards the accomplishment of this work. Firstly, I would like to thank my Almighty God for giving me a gracious opportunity to be admitted at the Open University of Tanzania and for His love and care that I have experienced throughout my study. Secondly, I register my deeper appreciation to my supervisor, Prof. Babyegeya who spent much of his time going through each word of my work, recommending on what had I have to do so that I could end up with a standard dissertation. Thirdly, I would be unwise if I do not thank Happiness Maduhu who spent much of her time editing this work, with her effort grammatical error has been minimized. Fourthly, my sincere appriciation goes to all the respondents and authorities who participated in any how during my study because without them nothing would have been accomplished. Lastly but not least, I would like to pass on my thanks to my colleagues at the Open University of Tanzania who persistently worked hand in hand with me even when I felt to be dead beat and discouraged. </li><li> 7. 7 ABSTRACT Secondary school dropout and crime seem to be crucial issues in the eduction, economic and social context in Tanzania. Consequently, this study was to assess the effects of secondary school dropouts on crime increase in Nyamagana District. Specificically the study sought to assess the extent to which secondary school dropouts involve in crime, to examine factors that make secondary school dropouts engage in criminal behavior and to identify types of crime that secondary school dropouts are frequently involved. A mixed approach, although mainly quantitative was employed in connection with survey design. A sample comprised of fifty six (56) rspondents. The data was collected using questionnaire, interview and documentary analysis. SPSS programmes was used for processing and analyisis of data. The findings of the study revealed that secondary school dropouts are most likely to involve in criminal offenses such as robbery, rape, drug abuse, burglary, theft, murder, assalt and alcoholism and factors that make them involve in criminal actions were found to be poverty, unemployment, envy, social isolation, peer pressure, alcoholism, corruption and ignorance. The findings suggest that an increase of the number of dropouts impinges the increase in criminal offenses. The study recommends that there should be improved teaching and learning environment in secondary schools to keep students in schools; the use of educative phrases like students who learn more earn more that will motivate students; improved performance of guidance and counseling school committee and improved provision of quality and equity education to students. </li><li> 8. 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATION......................................................................................................2 COPYRIGHT..............................................................................................................3 DECLARATION.........................................................................................................4 DEDICATION.............................................................................................................5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................6 ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................7 LIST OF TABLES....................................................................................................12 LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................................14 LIST OF APPENDICES ..........................................................................................15 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS................................................16 CHAPTER ONE .........................................................................................................1 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY.................................1 1.1 Background of the Study.....................................................................................1 1.2 Statement of the Problem ....................................................................................2 1.3 Purpose of the Study............................................................................................3 1.4 Objectives of the Study .......................................................................................4 1.5 Research Questions .............................................................................................4 1.6 Delimitation of the Study ....................................................................................4 1.7 Limitation of the Study........................................................................................5 1.8 Significance of the Study.....................................................................................5 1.9 Conceptual Framework .......................................................................................5 CHAPTER TWO ........................................................................................................6 </li><li> 9. 9 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................6 2.1 Introduction .........................................................................................................6 2.2 Concepts and Definitions ....................................................................................7 2.2.1 Dropouts..............................................................................................................7 2.2.2 Crime....................................................................................................................7 2.3 Involvement of People in Crime..........................................................................9 2.3.1 Engagement Secondary School Dropouts in Crime.............................................9 2.3.2 Problems of Juveniles ........................................................................................10 2.4 Factors that Make School Dropouts Engage in Crime ......................................11 2.5 Types of Crime..................................................................................................16 2.6 The Effect of Education on Crime.....................................................................17 2.7 Measures for Reducing or Fighting off School Dropout...................................23 2.8 Summary of Knowledge Gap............................................................................24 CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................26 3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES................................................................26 3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................26 3.2 Research Approach............................................................................................26 3.3 Research Design ................................................................................................27 3.4 Area of the Study...............................................................................................27 3.5 Population, Sampling Techniques and Sample Size .........................................28 3.5.1 Population..........................................................................................................28 3.5.2 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size.............................................................28 3.6 Research Instruments.........................................................................................29 3.6.1 Questionnaires....................................................................................................29 </li><li> 10. 10 3.6.2 Documentary Analysis ......................................................................................30 3.6.3 Interview............................................................................................................30 3.7 Reliability and Validity of the Research Instruments........................................31 3.7.1 Reliability of the Research Instruments ............................................................31 3.7.2 Validity of the Research Instruments ................................................................31 3.8 Data Processing and Analysis Plan ...................................................................32 CHAPTER FOUR.....................................................................................................33 4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION .....................33 4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................33 4.2 The Education Background Information of the Respondents ...........................33 4.3 The Extent to which Secondary School Dropouts Involve in Crime ................35 4.3.1 Involvement in Crime Offenses by Age Groups ...............................................35 4.3.2 Repeatition in Crime Convictions .....................................................................36 4.3.3 Secondary Education Background of the Alleged Persons ...............................37 4.3.4 Criminal Cases by Secondary School Dropouts................................................39 4.4 Factors that Make Secondary School Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour41 4.4.1 Poverty Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour .................................41 4.4.2 Envy Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour .....................................43 4.4.3 Social Isolation Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour....................44 4.4.4 Lack of Employement Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour ..........45 4.4.5 Peer Pressure Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour .....................46 4.4.6 Poor Family Care Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour .................47 4.4.7 Lack of Law Enforcing Agents Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour ...........................................................................................................................48 </li><li> 11. 11 4.4.8 Corruption Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour............................49 4.4.9 The Influence of Poor Health Status Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour ..........................................................................................................50 4.4.10 Political Influence Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour...............51 4.4.11 Lack of Education Makes Dropouts Engage in Criminal Behaviour ..............52 4.4.12 Summary of the Factors that Make Secondary School Dropouts to Engage in Criminal Actions ...............................................................................................53 4.5 Types of Crime..................................................................................................55 4.5.1 Types of Crimes by Wich Criminals Were Alleged for ....................................55 4.5.2 Four Frequently Reported Criminal Actions .....................................................56 CHAPTER FIVE ......................................................................................................59 5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS .......................59 5.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................59 5.2 Summary............................................................................................................59 5.3 Conclusion.........................................................................................................61 5.4 Recommendations .............................................................................................61 REFERENCES..........................................................................................................63 APPENDICES...........................................................................................................69 </li><li> 12. 12 LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1: Education Background of the Respondents...............................................34 Table 4.2: Involvement in Crime Offenses by Age Groups .......................................35 Table 4.3: Repeatition in Crime Convictions .............................................................36 Table 4.4(a): Secondary Education Background of the Alleged Persons...................38 Table 4.4(b): The Accused Persons who were Dropouts ...........................................38 Table 4.5(a): Number of Pending Criminal Cases Nyamagana District Court for Three Years ................................................................................................39 Table 4.5(b): Number of Criminal Cases Filed at Nyamagana District Court for Three Months .............................................................................................39 Table 4.6: Poverty Makes Dr...</li></ol>