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  • Basic First Aid

  • basic first aidDefinition:First Aid is the initial response and assistance to an accident/injury situation.First Aid commonly requires some direct exposure to the accident scene.This response has the primary purpose of stabilizing the scene and those affected by the incident.

  • FundamentalsProtect YourselfCall for helpAirway, Breathing, CirculationControl of BleedingControlling Physical ShockOpen and Closed WoundsInjuries to BonesTransportation

  • Airway and BreathingAfter you have secured the scene and assured that you are safe:Make sure the patient is breathing.Are breathing sounds evident?Does the patients chest rise and fall?Is the patients skin blue or gray in color?Do not attempt CPR unless you are trained.

  • ChokingWhat should I do if my patient is choking? If your patient cannot speak or cough and holds their throat these are common signs of choking.Abdominal thrusts and back blows are the most commonly prescribed method for removing airway obstruction.

  • Procedures for ChokingPosition yourself behind your patient and deliver 5 firm back blows between the shoulder blades.Sweep the patients mouth from side to side.If the obstruction is not cleared, deliver 5 abdominal thrusts and repeat the finger sweep.

  • ChokingThe conscious victim will usually be standing and abdominal thrusts should be applied from behind.

    Unconscious victims should be placed on their back on a flat and firm surface.

  • Control BleedingIf your patient is conscious:Have them apply direct pressure to the bleeding area with a clean (preferably sterile) dressing.It will also be helpful to elevate the bleeding area and apply cold packs to assist in reducing the blood flow. Unconscious patients will require your assistance!

  • Open and Closed WoundsOpen wounds usually involve visible injury with bleeding.Once bleeding is controlled, the primary concerns are physical shock and prevention of infection.

    Closed wounds are less evident, but can be just as serious as an open injury.Deep BruisesInternal BleedingWounds are classified as open or closed.

  • injuries to bones and musclesCommon injuries to bones and muscles include:Sprains injuries to ligaments Strains muscles moving beyond the normal range of motion or loadFractures physical damage to the bone (chipped or broken bones)

  • physical shockPhysical Shock is a very serious condition!The brain fails to get an adequate supply of oxygen due to the bodys reaction to trauma.If left untreated, this condition can result in death.

  • treatment for physical shockSymptoms:Cold and moist skin (cold sweat)Shallow and rapid breathingWeak and rapid pulsePale skin with possible bluish tint around the lips and nail bedsTreatments:Keep the patient warm and calmProvide oxygen, if availablePromote blood flow to the head by elevating the lower bodyDo not give the patient anything to eat or drink

  • transportationPhysical shock commonly causes loss of consciousness. Therefore:Patients displaying symptoms of physical shock should not operate a motor vehicle.Trauma patients should be transported in a comfortable position that promotes blood circulation to the brain.When in doubt, always use professional injury transportation such as an ambulance service.

  • summaryYour first consideration is to protect yourself.Secure the sceneUse BSI (body substance isolation)Brain cells will begin to die in 4 minutes without oxygen breathing is critical and should be your primary focus in first aid.Provide treatment only within the level of your training this is best for both you and your patient.Keep emergency numbers close by and involve the EMS group as soon as possible.

    Your first responsibility is to recognize the limits of your training and ability and stay within those limits. Good Samaritan Laws protect first responders as long as they act within the limits of their training.

    With knowledge comes responsibility. Use what you know, but dont make it up as you go along.Your first duty is to protect yourself. You will not be able to render aid if you are injured yourself.

    Dont take chances with your safety or the safety of the those affected by the incident. Call your emergency numbers (usually 911).

    Examples:

    Persons shocked or electrocuted while trying to assist someone exposed to electrical current.Persons exposed to chemicals while trying to assist others who have been exposed.Persons struck by falling material trying to rescue injury victims.If the patient is not breathing, serious injury is imminent. Brain cells begin to die after 4 to 6 minutes without oxygen. This 4 to 6 minute time frame is critical. If you know CPR, begin the process as soon as you determine that the patient is not breathing. In any case, it is of the utmost importance to notify your EMS (Emergency Medical System) immediately.This is explained on the next slide... inform the students that they should not attempt to remove obstructions by forcing their fingers into the throat of a patient. This process may force the obstruction deeper into the airway and make it more difficult to remove. Abdominal thrusts are delivered by smoothly and quickly forcing the diaphragm inward and upward toward the chest. This creates a burst of air pressure that will hopefully push the obstruction up and out of the airway. The finger sweep should be from side to side, remember not to reach into the throat and possibly force the obstruction deeper into the airway.Using the diagrams above, walk the class through the process for both a conscious and unconscious choking victim.

    If you observe an "conscious" ADULT choking: -Ask, "Are you choking?" -If the victim can speak, cough, or breathe, DO NOT INTERFERE. -If the victim CANNOT speak, cough, or breathe, give subdiaphragmatic abdominal thrusts (the Heimlich maneuver) until the foreign body is expelled or the victim becomes unconscious. (Or in case of extreme obesity or late pregnancy, give chest thrusts.) -Be persistent. -Continue uninterrupted until the obstruction is relieved or advanced life support is available. In either case the victim should be examined by a physician as soon as possible

    If the Victim Becomes Unconscious: -Position victim on back, arms by side. -Call out "Help!", or if others respond, call 911. -Perform tongue-jaw lift and finger sweep to try to remove the foreign body. -Open airway (head-tilt/chin-lift), and attempt rescue breathing. -If unsuccessful, give 6-10 subdiaphragmatic abdominal thrusts (the Heimlich maneuver). -Repeat sequence: perform finger sweep, open the airway, attempt rescue breathing, perform abdominal thrusts -- until successful It is important to protect yourselfuse BSI (body substance isolation) PPE such as latex gloves, eye protection, and gowns if available. Many facilities have these materials in the first aid supply cabinet.

    Important facts:

    The average adult has about 12 pints of blood.

    Loss of 1 pint of blood can result in severe physical shock and possibly be fatal.

    Arterial bleeding (characterized by bright red, spurting, blood flow) can be fatal in minutes if not controlled.Remember your BSI when placing bandages, yes, even band-aids, on open wounds. Always use clean (preferably sterile) bandages from the first aid kit to cover open wounds. The bandage will keep out bacteria while assisting in control of bleeding by applying pressure to the wounded area.

    Internal bleeding is the primary concern with closed wounds. Especially wounds to the head, chest, or abdomen. Areas where vital organs can be affected by external trauma are extremely vulnerable. If a patient shows deep bruising on the chest or abdomen, they should seek medical attention immediately.

    Remember that a bruise is nothing more than blood seeping into the tissue under the skin - if a person is bruised, they have suffered some blood loss. These injuries usually go beyond the range of basic first aid and require medical intervention.

    One basic rule is that cold applications to reduce swelling are always advisable. The reaction of the body is complicated, but can be simplified to say that the circulatory system reacts to trauma and this reaction can result in reduced blood flow.All of the symptoms are directly tied to the bodys effort to increase circulation:

    Faster heart rate and breathing along with dilation of the blood vessels. Problem is that the blood volume is the same or less, due to the injury and that causes reduced blood pressure and therefore, decreased circulation. The patient breathes faster in an attempt to make up the reduced oxygen to the brain, but the circulation will not carry the oxygen intake so the situation continues to worsen.

    Notice that all of the treatments work directly to counteract the negativesslow the heart rate, promote warmth, avoid stimulation with food or drinks. Providing concentrated oxygen, if available and you are properly trained, is a great agent to counteract shock effects.