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    ASSESSING AND ADAPTING TO CLIMATE-CHANGE INDUCED SEA- LEVEL RISE ON THE SOUTHERN COASTLINE OF THE GAMBIA.

    FamaraDrammeh- The Gambia

    United Nations - Nippon Foundation of Japan Fellowship Programme- 2012-2013

    Supervisors:

    Prof. Larry Hildebrand, World Maritime University, Malmö, Sweden

    Dr. FancoisBailet, Senior Legal Officer, Division of ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea

    Ms.ValentinaGermani, Legal officer, Division of Ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea

    13thDECEMBER, 2013

     

     

  • Table of contents

    PART ONE 

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 

    1.1  Context and background information…………………………………………………………………………………… 1‐5 

    1.2  Study Area and significance of Southern Coastline of The Gambia………………………………………. 5‐7 

    1.3         Problem Statement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7‐8 

    1.4         Purpose and objectives……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8‐9 

    1.5        Organization of the research…………………………………………………………………………………………………..8 

    CHAPTER 2:CURRENT APPROACHES TO SEA‐LEVEL RISE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT ………………. 10‐13 

    2.1International approaches for assessing coastal vulnerability to accelerated sea‐level rise………13‐15 

    2.1.1    IPCC Common Methodology (CM)……… ………………………………………………………………………………..15‐18 

    2.1.2   UNEP guidelines on methods for impact assessment …………………………………………………………….18‐20 

    2.1.3   MEA……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20‐21 

    2.1.4   Analysis of the approaches…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21‐25 

    2.2       Review of the tools used in sea‐level rise vulnerability assessment……………………………….    26‐ 27 

    2.2.1   Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI)…………………………………………………………………………..28‐29 

    2.2.2   Sea‐Level Rise Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM)………………………………………………… …………..30‐33 

    2.2.3   Sea‐Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impact Viewer……………………………………………………………. 33‐35 

    2.2.4   Dynamic Interactive Vulnerability Assessment (DIVA)…………………………………………………………35‐37 

    2.2.5   Analysis of the tools……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37‐41 

    CHAPTER 3: CASE STUDY OF STATES: REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL 

    3.1    Regional Case studies on Coastal erosion……………………………………………………………………………. 42 

    3.1.1 Case study on coastal erosion: Rufisque, Senegal……………………………………………………………….    43‐46 

    3.1.2 Case study on coastal erosion: Keta Sea Defence Project, Ghana……………………………………….    47‐50 

    3.1.3 Case study on coastal erosion: Victoria Island, Nigeria……………………………………………………….    50‐53 

    3.1.4 Analysis on the best and bad practices…………………………………………………………………………………. 54‐57 

     

  • II 

    3.2 International case studies on sea‐level rise adaptation 

    3.2.1 Case study on sea‐level rise adaptation strategies: California, USA……………………………. 58‐60 

    3.2.2 Case study on sea‐level rise adaptation strategies: Netherlands……………………………….. 61‐63 

    3.2.3 Case study on sea‐level rise adaptation strategies: Indonesia…………………………………..  64‐65 

    3.2.4 Analysis of the sea‐level adaptation strategies………………………………………………………….. 66‐69 

    PART TWO:   

    CHAPTER 4: SOUTHERN COASTLINE OF THE GAMBIA‐ WAY FORWARD 

    4.1 Status of The Gambia’s coastline ………………………………………………………………………………… 70 

    4.1.1 Physical characteristics of the coastal zone……………………………………………………………….. 70‐78 

    4.1.2 Location and Significance of the study area: Southern coastline of The Gambia………   79‐85 

    4.1.3 Main problems/challenges of the coast……………………………………………………………………   86‐90 

    4.2 Future state/baseline scenarios of The Gambia’s coastline 

     4.2.1 Climate Change and projections…………………………………………………………………………….    91‐94 

     4.2.2 Climate Change Impacts‐ Environment…………………………………………………………………      94‐96 

     4.2.3 Climate Change Impact‐ Socio‐economic and population……………………………………..     96‐97 

    CHAPTER 5: THE GAPS IN AND NEEDS FOR SEA‐LEVEL RISE ADAPTATION IN GAMBIA  

    5.1     Existing coastal and Climate Change adaptation strategies and activities 

    5.1.1Legal, institutional and management framework for coastal zone management…….. 98‐100 

     5.1.2 Legal, institutional and management framework for climate change……………………… 101‐103 

    5.2   Needs for climate change adaptation and mitigation 

     5.2.1 Coastal protection measures (past and present)……………………………………………………. 103‐113 

     5.2.2 Recommended management options……………………………………………………………………. 114‐117 

    CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………… 118‐128 

    CHAPTER 7: BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………………………………. 129‐137 

     

     

  • III 

    Disclaimer

    The views expresses herein are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Government of the Republic of The Gambia, The United Nations, the Nippon Foundation of

    Japan or World Maritime University.

    ©2013FamaraDrammeh.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • IV 

    Copyright Statement

    This copy of the research paper has been supplied on condition that anyone who consults it is understood to recognize that its copyright rests with its author and that no quotation, diagrams and information derived from it may be published without accurate citation.

    Contact Information

    FamaraDrammeh

    Email: famsken_jnr@hotmail.co.uk

    Suggested Citation: FamaraDrammeh, “Assessing and adapting to Climate-Change Induced Sea- level rise on the Southern Coastline of The Gambia”, Research paper, United Nations-Nippon Foundation Fellowship, 2013.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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    ABSTRACT 

    The risk of climate-change induced sea-level rise damage to human and economic development

    in coastal areas of The Gambia is mounting. The combined effect of sea-level rise and changes in

    upstream river discharge, erosion of coastal embankmentsand changes to natural sediment

    dynamics, pose a serious threat to the natural resources base and livelihood opportunities of

    coastal communities(UNDP, 2012). In addition to recurrent and rapid onset of extreme events

    (i.e., flash flooding), The Gambia’s coastal zone is being confronted with a range of creeping

    climate risks such as increasing salinity level trends in coastal freshwater resources, growing

    drainage congestion, dynamic changes in coastal sediment dynamics and morphology and a

    decline in the functioning of protective ecosystems (e.g., mangroves). Currently, The Gambia

    has no Integrated Coastal Zone Act or Climate Change Policy; issues of coastal zone

    management are highlighted in the National Environment Management Act (NEMA). Therefore,

    there is a need for policy development to guide future strategies in sea-level rise adaptation

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