a possible refutation


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    Pharaoh said: "O Chiefs! no god do I know for you but myself...'' [Qur'an 28:38]

    Contradicteth the Verses :-

    1]''And the chiefs of Pharaoh's people said: 'Do you leave Musa and his people to make

    mischief in the land and to forsake you and your gods?' '' [Qur'an 7:127]

    2][Pharaoh] said, "If you take a god other than me, I will surely place you among those


    [Qur'an 29:26]

    But :-

    Verse 28:38 may be translated as follow:-

    Pharaoh said: "O Chiefs! no God do I know for you but myself...'' [Qur'an 28:38]

    Verse 29:26 may be translated as follow:-

    [Pharaoh] said, "If you take a God other than me, I will surely place you among those imprisoned."

    Verse 7:127 may be translated as follow:-

    ''And the chiefs of Pharaoh's people said: 'Do you leave Musa and his people to make

    mischief in the land and to forsake you and your gods?' '' [Qur'an 7:127]

    The Arabic word 'ILAH either meaneth ''God'' or ''god''.

    The Arabic word 'ALIHAH either meaneth ''Gods'' or ''gods''

    The choice of meaning may falsify the claim of Contradiction.

    The choosed meaning falsifieth the claim of internal contradiction.

  • Even the slightest possibility of the meaning removeth the contradiction.

    How ever there are two objections of external contradictions:-

    1] Egyptians only believed in a number of gods, they neither believed in a number of Gods, nor believed in only one god.

    2] It is not proved from secular and egyptological sources that any Pharoah claimed to be God or Incarnated God or Incarnation of God.

    "God"[with a capital ''G'' not a small ''g''] should be reserved to express the name of the Creator of the Universe [THE SUPREME BEING], and that neteru

    , usually rendered "gods,"[with a small ''g'' not a capital''G'']

    should be translated by some other word,[SUPERMUNDALES,gods/god] but what that word should be it is almost impossible

    to say.

    God means :- A Supreme ,Insubordinate,Almighty,Most High, Uncreated Beingwho is the Ultimate Creator of the Cosmos

    and any thing in the cosmos, and Deserveth to be Worshipped.

    god means :- A Super being [Not Supreme ], with some limited extraordenary powers, not eternal, and deserves to be worshipped.

    As for the first objection one may study the following:-The belief in One God.

    From the attributes of God set forth in Egyptian texts of all periods, Dr. Brugsch, de Roug, and other eminent

    Egyptologists have come to the opinion that the dwellers in the Nile valley, from the earliest times, knew and worshipped

    one God, nameless, incomprehensible, and eternal. In 1860 de Roug wrote:--"The

  • [1. The hieratic text of this story was published by Pleyte and Rossi, Le Papyrus de Turin, 1869-1876, pll. 31-77, and

    131-138; a French translation of it was published by M. Lefbure, who first recognized the true character of the

    composition, in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1883, p. 27 ff; and a German translation by Wiedemann is in his collection of

    "Sonnensagen," Religion der alten Aegypter, Mnster, 1890, p. 29 ff.

    2 A similar difficulty also exists in Hebrew, for elomhim means both God and "gods"; compare Psalm lxxxii., i.]

    {p. xcii}

    unity of a supreme and self-existent being, his eternity, his almightiness, and external reproduction thereby as God;

    the attributing of the creation of the world and of all living beings to this supreme God; the immortality of the soul,

    completed by the dogma of punishments and rewards: such is the sublime and persistent base which, notwithstanding

    all deviations and all mythological embellishments, must secure for the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians a most honourable

    place among the religions of antiquity."[1] Nine years later he developed thisview, and discussed the difficulty of

    reconciling the belief in the unity of God with the polytheism which existed in Egypt from the earliest times, and he

    repeated his conviction that the Egyptians believed in a self-existent God whowas One Being, who had created man,

    and who had endowed him with an immortal soul.[2] In fact, de Roug amplifies what Champollion-Figeac

    (relying upon his brother's information) wrote in 1839: "The Egyptian religion is a pure monotheism, which manifested

  • itself externally by a symbolic polytheism."[3] M. Pierret adopts the view that the texts show us that the

    Egyptians believed in One infinite and eternal God who was without a second, and he repeats Champollion's dictum.

    [4] But the most recent supporter of the monotheistic theory is Dr. Brugsch, who has collected a number of striking passages

    from the texts. From these passages we may select the following:--

    God is one and alone, and none other existeth with Him--God is the One, the One who hath made all

    things--God is a spirit, a hidden spirit, the spirit of spirits, the great spirit of the Egyptians, the divine spirit--God is from the beginning, and He hath been from the beginning, He hath existed from old and was when nothing else had being. He existed when nothing else existed, and what existeth He created after He had come into being, He is the Father of beginnings--God is the eternal One, He is eternal and infinite and endureth for ever and aye--God is hidden and no man knoweth His form. No man hath been able to seek out Hislikeness; He is hidden to gods and men, and He is a mystery unto His creatures. No man knoweth how to know Him--His name remaineth hidden; His name is a mystery unto His children. His names are innumerable, they aremanifold and none knoweth their number--God is truth and He liveth by truth and He feedeth thereon. He is the king of truth, and He hath stablished the earth thereupon--God is life and through Him

    [1. tudes des Rituel Funraire des Anciens gyptiens (in Revue Archologique), Paris, 1860, p. 72.

    2. La croyance l'Unit du Dieu suprme, ses attributs de Crateur et de Lgislateur de l'homme, qu'il a dou d'une me

    immortelle; voil les notions primitives enchsses comme des diamants indestructibles au milieu des superftations

    mythologiques accumules par les sicles qui ont pass sur cette vieille civilization. See Conference sur la Religion des

    anciens gyptiens (in Annales de Philosophic Chrtienne, 5ime Srie, t. xx.,

  • Paris, 1869, pp. 325-337).

    3. gypte, Paris, 1839, p. 245, col. 1.

    4. Le Panthon gyptien, Paris, 1881, p. 4.]

    {p. xciii}

    only man liveth. He giveth life to man, He breatheth the breath of life into his nostrils--God is father and mother,

    the father of fathers , and the mother of mothers. He begetteth, but was never begotten;

    He produceth, but was never produced; He begat himself and produced himself. He createth, but was never

    created; He is the maker of his own form, and the fashioner of His own body--God Himself is Existence, He Endureth

    without increase or diminution, He Multiplieth Himself millions of times, and He is manifold in forms and in

    members--God hath made the universe, and He hath created all that therein is; He is the Creator of what is in this world,

    and of what was, of what is, and of what shall be. He is the Creator of the heavens, and of the earth, and of the deep, and

    of the water, and of the mountains. God hath stretched out the heavens and founded the earth-What His heart conceived

    straightway came to pass, and when He hath spoken, it cometh to pass and endureth for ever--God is the father of

    the gods; He fashioned men and formed the gods--God Is Merciful Unto Those who reverence Him, and He heareth

    him that calleth upon Him. God Knoweth him that acknowledgeth Him, He

  • Rewardeth him that Serveth Him, and He

    Protecteth him that followeth Him.[1]

    Monotheism and polytheism coexistent.

    Because, however, polytheism existed side by side with monotheism in Egypt, M. Maspero believes that the words

    "God One" do not mean "One God" in our sense of the words; and Mr. Renouf thinks that the

    "Egyptian nutar never became a proper name."[2] Whether polytheism grew from monotheism in Egypt,

    or monotheism from polytheism we will not venture to say, for the evidence of the pyramid texts shows that already

    in the Vth dynasty monotheism and polytheism were flourishing side by side.

    The opinion of Tiele is that the religion of Egypt was from the beginning polytheistic, but that it developed in two

    opposite directions: in the one direction gods were multiplied by the addition of local gods, and in the other the

    Egyptians drew nearer and nearer to monotheism.[3]

    {{ It may be said that ''God Is One'' meanseth Only One God and Several gods, where as in

    True Monothiestic Religions,

    Only One God meaneth '' One God ,no god and no God beside That God''}}.

    The sun the emblem of God.

    From a number of passages drawn from texts of all periods it is clear that the form in which God made himself

  • manifest to man upon earth was the sun, which the Egyptians called Ra and that all other gods and goddesses were forms of him. The principal authorities for epithets applied to God and to His visible emblem the sun are the hymns and litanies which are found inscribed upon

    [1. Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie, pp. 96-99. The whole chapter on the ancient Egyptian conception of God should be

    read with M. Maspero's comments upon it in La Mythologie gyptienne (tudes de Mythologie, t. ii., p. 189 ff.).

    2. Hibbert Lectures, p. 99.

    3. Hypothezen omtrent de wording van den Egyptischen Godsdienst (in Geschiedenis van den Godsdienst in de Oudheid, Amsterdam, 1893, p