1 Site Work. 2 Major Topics Site Plans/Surveys Grading Compacting/Erosion Earthwork Soil Surface & Groundwater Paving and Surfacing Materials.

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Site WorkMajor TopicsSite Plans/SurveysGradingCompacting/ErosionEarthworkSoilSurface & GroundwaterPaving and Surfacing MaterialsSite Plans Include:All information shown on a surveyChanges in topography or gradeDemolition of existing constructionExact location of new constructionSurveysLegal description of a piece of landTypically done by a registered land surveyorSurveys include the boundaries and elevations of land plots and buildings (in text and drawings)Topography or GradeContour lines show elevationCloser the contour lines are together- the steeper the slopeThis information is critical in determining how much earth must be moved to prepare site for structure being builtGradingBoth the rough and final grades on a building site are established by grading, using power equipment and hand tools.Grading is needed wherever slabs, pavement, walks, and landscaping is anticipated.Finish grading should slope downward away from the building at a minimum of 6 inches/ 10 feet (about 5 %).CompactingCompacting applies energy to soil to consolidate it by compressing air voids to increase the soils dry density.Minimizes settlingIncreases load-bearing capabilitiesIncreases soil stabilityReduces water penetrationSlope Protection & Erosion ControlBuilding codes often dictate prevention of erosionPossible methods used include:Filter fabrics open weaved mats of nylon or other synthetic materialsRiprap a layer of stone or broken concrete used to control or divert the flow of water EarthworkInvolves some type of cutting (excavation) or filling of soil materialsThe level down to which the materials are removed is determined by the contract documentsThis phase of site work is referred to as rough gradingSoil testing is usually performed at this timeFill and BackfillSoils used for fill should contain no vegetation or foreign materials that would cause uneven settlement.Beneath slabs a base course (4 thick mixture of gravel, crushed stone, sand, or crushed slag) should be provided.See figure 21.3-12 on page 1079 for acceptable soils to use for fillSoil Testing Identify the materials on the siteDetermine Soil densityMoisture ContentLoad-bearing capacityShear StrengthPlasticity indexAnalyze the gain size of soil particlesSoil TypesDivisionDescriptionValue as a foundation materialGravel and Gravelly SoilsWell-graded;Gravel-sand mixtures; little or no finesExcellent to goodSand and Sandy SoilsSilty sands, sand-silt mixturesFairSilts and ClaysOrganic silt-clay of low plasticityPoor to very poorPrimary Soil Considerations: Dewatering-Critical in sub-surface foundations (basement earth sheltered)Open-drain (French) & gravel used to lead water awayPumps may also be used to remove excess waterCompaction critical !! - to prevent uneven load settlementSoil Considerations cont:Stabilization use various additives to adjust the properties of soilPoisoning- used to control termites * Note: certain chemicals are no longer used due to environmental concernsTermite ControlSubterranean termites pose a great hazard to building materials especially in mild climatesTermites live underground but build tubes of earth to reach wood, fiberboard, fabrics, and paper. They must have a constant source of water or they will dieThey enter a structure by attacking wood in contact with the ground, through small cracks, or by flying.Soil PoisoningBecause of environmental concerns many chemicals are no longer used for thisAcceptable termiticides include:ChlorpyrifosCypermethrinFenvalerateIsofenphosPermethrinSurface & GroundwaterSurface water most problems with this arise from improper gradingSlabs on grade problems may be eliminated by proper grading, selecting correct base materials, and installation of a vapor retarderVapor Retarder this membrane should resist deterioration, be thick enough to resist penetration (usually 6 mils), and be overlapped 6 inches during installationCommon material used is polyethelene sheetingPaving & SurfacingDifferent materials are used to perform eachPaving uses concrete, stone, or brickSurfacing uses flexible and water-bound surfacesAsphaltIs a dark-brown to black, solid or semi-solid, mainly composed of Bitumens (a tarry mixture of hydrocarbons)Bitumens also used in:Water proofing coatings Sheet Water proofing Damp proofing below gradeAsphalt moves into a liquid state when heatedCoal Tar Pitch greater water resistance than asphalt, good adhesive properties, unlike asphalt - contains very little bitumenReferencesConstruction Materials and Processes, 3rd Edition. Watson, Don A.. McGraw-Hill, 1986. Imprint 2000. ISBN: 0-07-068476-6Construction Principles, Materials, and Methods, Seventh Edition. H. Leslie Simmons, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. Olins Construction Principles, Materials, and Methods, Eighth Edition. H. Leslie Simmons, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2007. Architectural Materials for Construction, Rosen, Harold J. and Heineman, Tom. McGraw-Hill, 1996. ISBN: 0-07-053741-0Basic Construction Materials, 6th Edition. Marotta, Theodore W. Prentice Hall, 2002. ISBN: 0-13-089625-XBuilding Construction: Materials and Types of Construction, 6th Edition, Ellison, Donald C., Huntington, W.C., Mickadeit, Robert E.. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 0-13-090952-1.Architectural Graphic Standards: Student Edition, Abridgment of 9th Edition. The American Institute of Architects. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 0-471-34817-1

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