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  • Lessons Learnt from ASC

    Runway Excursion

    Occurrence Investigation

    Working Group

    Lessons Learnt from ASC

    Runway Excursion

    Occurrence Investigation

    Working Group

    Michael Guan Ph.D.

    Aviation Safety Council, Taiwan

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 2

    Statistics and Analysis of Aviation Occurrence in Taiwan

    Runway Excursion Occurrence Investigation Working Group

    Application Tips and Checklist

    Conclusions

    Contents

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 3

    Statistics and Analysis of Aviation

    Occurrence in Taiwan

    The detailed report is available at ASC Web

    http://www.asc.gov.tw/asc_en/every_statistics_eng.asp

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 4

    Hull loss rate with 10-year moving average

    4.10

    3.38

    2.72 2.62 2.61

    3.18 2.73

    1.71 1.75 1.75

    1.17

    0.58

    4.86

    4.10 4.15

    3.51

    2.83

    2.06

    1.10

    1.17 1.25 1.31

    0.00 0.00 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1993-2002

    1994-2003

    1995-2004

    1996-2005

    1997-2006

    1998-2007

    1999-2008

    2000-2009

    2001-2010

    2002-2011

    2003-2012

    2004-2013

    ////

    ////

    Per

    mil

    lio

    n D

    ep

    art

    ure

    s

    Turbojet

    Turboprop

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 5

    Aviation Occurrence by category(1999-2013)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

    OTHR

    SEC: Security related

    RAMP: Ground Handling

    ICE: Icing

    WSTRW: Windshear or

    CTOL: Collision with obstacle

    MAC: TCAS alert/ loss of

    GCOL: Ground collision

    RI: Runway incursion

    SCF-PP: Powerplant

    TURB: Turbulence encounter

    ARC: Abnormal runway contact

    F-NI: Fire/smoke

    SCF-NP: System/component

    RE: Runway excursion

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 6

    Runway ExcursionDate Time Aircraft Type Precipitation type

    1999.09.02 11:48 B747-200 None veer off

    2000.04.24 07:30 MD82 Heavy rain veer off

    2000.08.24 01:48 MD90 Light rain over run

    2000.10.31 21:50 B737-800 Heavy rain veer off

    2003.08.21 11:13 MD82 Light rain veer off

    2004.08.24 09:20 MD82 Heavy rain veer off

    2004.10.18 17:59 A320 Light rain over run

    2006.07.14 19:15 MD83 Heavy rain veer off

    2007.08.22 09:20 MD82 Light rain veer off

    2008.08.15 21:50 A340 None veer off2010.09.02 21:37 B747-400 Heavy rain veer off

    2011.02.26 22:49 A330 None veer off

    2011.05.12 20:35 MD90 Heavy rain veer off

    2012.05.16 10:42 MD82 Light rain over run

    2012.08.12 15:26 A330 Heavy rain veer off

    2012.08.17 21:27 ERJ-190 None veer off

    2012.09.13 12:43 A330 Heavy rain veer off

    All Landing Occurrences / no fatality

    * 82.4 % Landing RV; 47.1% heavy rain

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 7

    Runway Excursion Occurrence Investigation Working Group

    (REOI WG)

    Duration: 2011/08 ~ 2013/12

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 8

    Revise ASCs existing SOP, review on-scene data collection items.

    Collect and share the technical materials from AIBs

    Improving ASCs analysis capabilities Progressive development of hydroplaning

    investigation skills

    The major objectives for the REOI WG

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Points of highlight1. Flight crew information and training records

    2.Wet/Conta. RWY operational techniques; CMC/FMC data

    3. Available flight data, crew interviews, and related OBS flight

    1. ATC issued reports/received PIPREPs (poor/nil braking)

    2. GND records (Rainfall rate, LLWAS, runway frictions)

    3. Water depth measurement, friction & drainage analysis

    1. Tire trend identification & damaged tire marks

    2.Tire pressure & wear conditions

    3.Anti-skid, auto-brake exam./test; related maint. records

    1.Site Survey (GND tracks, marks, debris pos.)

    2.Data mapping & evaluation (ASDE/SSR/ FDR path)

    3. A/C braking performance analysis (FDR data, friction coeff.)

    FOPS

    ATS & Airport

    A/C Sys.

    A/C Perf.

    9

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 10

    Intermittent sliding

    A/C Braking Performance Vs. Slip Ratio

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 11

    NASAs Flight Test for B727

    Runway grooving can increase the Aircraft deceleration performance

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Results

    Currently, ASCs REOI WG has finished: Tentative On-scene Checklist

    Task forces among with CAA, Operator and ASC

    Technical guidance for investigators to conduct investigation involved with wet runway (not limited to runway excursion!)

    On-scene tasks, must-analyzed items , outsourcing contact lists, and reference materials

    Internal Training

    12

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 13

    1 on-scene checklist

    + 9 reference charts Aircraft basic dimensions and

    wheel configuration

    Relationship of hydroplaning

    critical speed and Tire Pressure

    Investigation Procedure for

    suspected hydroplaning

    Relationship of rainfall rate and

    water depth (TTI)

    Relationship of rainfall rate and

    water depth (TC)

    Relationship of ground vehicle

    friction and Aircraft Friction

    Runway Condition Assessment

    Matrix (FAA)

    Runway Condition Assessment

    Matrix For Landing (Airbus)

    Site Survey Forms

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 14

    Progressive development of hydroplaning investigation skills

    On-Job Training at other AIB

    Evaluate aircraft performance degradation and possibility / types of hydroplaning

    Comprehensive study of new technical materials ICAO Runway Condition Reporting (ICAO CIR 329)

    ICAO Runway Safety Team Handbook

    IATA/ICAO/FSF ALAR & RERR toolkits, ICAO regional runway safety meeting materials

    EASA RuFAB- Runway Friction Characteristics Measurement & Aircraft Braking

    FAA Takeoff & Landing Perf. Assessment Aviation Rulemaking Committee

    Winter Operations, Friction Measurements & Conditions for Friction Predictions (AIBN)

    REOI WG has finished a formal safety study report

    results(cont)

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 15

    Application Tips and

    Checklist

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 16

    FAF1000 ft500ft50ft

    Stabilized Landing Stabilized Approach

    Go AroundAborted Landing

    Stabilized Approach Vs. Stabilized Landing

    FDA/FDM is good tool to monitor stabilized

    approach (refer to ALAR/FSF)

    How to define key parameters to monitor stabilized

    landing? The term of stabilized landing concept , by Jim Burin/FSF)

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 17

    Stabilized Landing GuidelinesA landing is stabilized when all of the following criteria are met: Fly a stabilized approach

    Height at threshold crossing is 50 ft

    Airspeed at threshold crossing is not more than Vref+10 kt,

    and not less than Vref

    Tailwind is no more than 10 kt for a non-conta. runway, no

    more than 0 kt for a conta. runway

    Touchdown on runway centerline at the touchdown aim

    point

    After touchdown, promptly transition to desired

    deceleration config.- brakes, spoilers, thrust reversers(note: once T/R have been activated, a go-around is no longer an option)

    Speed is less than 80 kt with 2,000 ft of runway remaining.

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    160 kt

    150 kt

    140 kt130 kt

    120 kt

    5 deg

    4 deg

    3 deg

    2 deg

    1 deg

    25 ft

    20 ft

    15 ft

    10 ft

    05 ft

    00 ft

    Runway Veeroff Vs. Crab & speed

    ).(

    )(

    ndeclinatiomagAngleDrift

    xSinVY

    headingmagneticACheadingtrueRWY

    GS

    ++=

    =

    During flare and De-

    rotation operation,

    consider crab angle of 5-

    deg, touchdown speed btw

    120 ~ 160kt, then the A/C

    lateral dev. 18 ~ 24 ft.

    If crabbing 3~ 5 deg and

    continue to fly 5 sec, then

    the A/C lateral dev. 50~ 125 ft.

    FDM/FOQA Heading Deviation

    at TKO/LND > 5 deg

    18

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    key parameters for stabilized landing

    Attitudes: bank < = 5 deg; pitch (related to A/C conf.)

    Crossing Runway Threshold: RA dev. 10 ft Vref 0 ~ +10 kt

    Load Factor: 1.3 ~ 1.6 g

    Long Flare: 12 ~ 14 sec (50 ft to M T/D)

    Long Landing: 2,000 ~ 2,500 ft (related to A/C)

    Heading deviation: = 2,500 ft (RA 50 ft ~ M T/D)Insufficient runway remaining:

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Runway Veeroff CaseB738 RV: RCTP RWY 05L MHD053 THD049

    RA 95& 30

    Down wind, bank > 5 deg

    RA 80

    Crab > 10 deg

    Condition RA 42 (0 s) M T/D (+8s) Drift to RHT(+12s) Max. drift (+16s)

    A/C MHD 44 40 38 31

    A/C DR 8.4 16.9 16.5 21.5

    A/CMHD-53 -9 -13 -15 -2220

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    veeroff13:50:12 M T/DRA 42

    053053053053

    31313131----53=53=53=53=----22222222

    S METAR 13:48 010/36 G52 RVR 500 TW25.68kt, LCW26.3kt

    (heavy rain) 13:53 010/37 G52 RVR 500

    FDR RA 100 ~ 50

    HW 26.8kt, LCW30kt

    Recommend Crosswind Guidelines for B737-800 : 27 kt (wet)

    Runway Veeroff CaseB738 RV: RCTP RWY 05L MHD053 THD049

    21

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 22

    Aircraft basic dimensions and wheel configuration

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Runway Tire Marks

    Black tire marks high friction, mostly dry runwayWhite erase marks lower friction, wet runwayNo marks almost no friction, flooded runway,

    (partial) dynamic or viscous hydroplaning.