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  • Lessons Learnt from ASC

    Runway Excursion

    Occurrence Investigation

    Working Group

    Lessons Learnt from ASC

    Runway Excursion

    Occurrence Investigation

    Working Group

    Michael Guan Ph.D.

    Aviation Safety Council, Taiwan

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 2

    Statistics and Analysis of Aviation Occurrence in Taiwan

    Runway Excursion Occurrence Investigation Working Group

    Application Tips and Checklist

    Conclusions

    Contents

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 3

    Statistics and Analysis of Aviation

    Occurrence in Taiwan

    The detailed report is available at ASC Web

    http://www.asc.gov.tw/asc_en/every_statistics_eng.asp

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 4

    Hull loss rate with 10-year moving average

    4.10

    3.38

    2.72 2.62 2.61

    3.18 2.73

    1.71 1.75 1.75

    1.17

    0.58

    4.86

    4.10 4.15

    3.51

    2.83

    2.06

    1.10

    1.17 1.25 1.31

    0.00 0.00 0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1993-2002

    1994-2003

    1995-2004

    1996-2005

    1997-2006

    1998-2007

    1999-2008

    2000-2009

    2001-2010

    2002-2011

    2003-2012

    2004-2013

    ////

    ////

    Per

    mil

    lio

    n D

    ep

    art

    ure

    s

    Turbojet

    Turboprop

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 5

    Aviation Occurrence by category(1999-2013)

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

    OTHR

    SEC: Security related

    RAMP: Ground Handling

    ICE: Icing

    WSTRW: Windshear or

    CTOL: Collision with obstacle

    MAC: TCAS alert/ loss of

    GCOL: Ground collision

    RI: Runway incursion

    SCF-PP: Powerplant

    TURB: Turbulence encounter

    ARC: Abnormal runway contact

    F-NI: Fire/smoke

    SCF-NP: System/component

    RE: Runway excursion

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 6

    Runway ExcursionDate Time Aircraft Type Precipitation type

    1999.09.02 11:48 B747-200 None veer off

    2000.04.24 07:30 MD82 Heavy rain veer off

    2000.08.24 01:48 MD90 Light rain over run

    2000.10.31 21:50 B737-800 Heavy rain veer off

    2003.08.21 11:13 MD82 Light rain veer off

    2004.08.24 09:20 MD82 Heavy rain veer off

    2004.10.18 17:59 A320 Light rain over run

    2006.07.14 19:15 MD83 Heavy rain veer off

    2007.08.22 09:20 MD82 Light rain veer off

    2008.08.15 21:50 A340 None veer off2010.09.02 21:37 B747-400 Heavy rain veer off

    2011.02.26 22:49 A330 None veer off

    2011.05.12 20:35 MD90 Heavy rain veer off

    2012.05.16 10:42 MD82 Light rain over run

    2012.08.12 15:26 A330 Heavy rain veer off

    2012.08.17 21:27 ERJ-190 None veer off

    2012.09.13 12:43 A330 Heavy rain veer off

    All Landing Occurrences / no fatality

    * 82.4 % Landing RV; 47.1% heavy rain

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 7

    Runway Excursion Occurrence Investigation Working Group

    (REOI WG)

    Duration: 2011/08 ~ 2013/12

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 8

    Revise ASCs existing SOP, review on-scene data collection items.

    Collect and share the technical materials from AIBs

    Improving ASCs analysis capabilities Progressive development of hydroplaning

    investigation skills

    The major objectives for the REOI WG

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Points of highlight1. Flight crew information and training records

    2.Wet/Conta. RWY operational techniques; CMC/FMC data

    3. Available flight data, crew interviews, and related OBS flight

    1. ATC issued reports/received PIPREPs (poor/nil braking)

    2. GND records (Rainfall rate, LLWAS, runway frictions)

    3. Water depth measurement, friction & drainage analysis

    1. Tire trend identification & damaged tire marks

    2.Tire pressure & wear conditions

    3.Anti-skid, auto-brake exam./test; related maint. records

    1.Site Survey (GND tracks, marks, debris pos.)

    2.Data mapping & evaluation (ASDE/SSR/ FDR path)

    3. A/C braking performance analysis (FDR data, friction coeff.)

    FOPS

    ATS & Airport

    A/C Sys.

    A/C Perf.

    9

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 10

    Intermittent sliding

    A/C Braking Performance Vs. Slip Ratio

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 11

    NASAs Flight Test for B727

    Runway grooving can increase the Aircraft deceleration performance

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Results

    Currently, ASCs REOI WG has finished: Tentative On-scene Checklist

    Task forces among with CAA, Operator and ASC

    Technical guidance for investigators to conduct investigation involved with wet runway (not limited to runway excursion!)

    On-scene tasks, must-analyzed items , outsourcing contact lists, and reference materials

    Internal Training

    12

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 13

    1 on-scene checklist

    + 9 reference charts Aircraft basic dimensions and

    wheel configuration

    Relationship of hydroplaning

    critical speed and Tire Pressure

    Investigation Procedure for

    suspected hydroplaning

    Relationship of rainfall rate and

    water depth (TTI)

    Relationship of rainfall rate and

    water depth (TC)

    Relationship of ground vehicle

    friction and Aircraft Friction

    Runway Condition Assessment

    Matrix (FAA)

    Runway Condition Assessment

    Matrix For Landing (Airbus)

    Site Survey Forms

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 14

    Progressive development of hydroplaning investigation skills

    On-Job Training at other AIB

    Evaluate aircraft performance degradation and possibility / types of hydroplaning

    Comprehensive study of new technical materials ICAO Runway Condition Reporting (ICAO CIR 329)

    ICAO Runway Safety Team Handbook

    IATA/ICAO/FSF ALAR & RERR toolkits, ICAO regional runway safety meeting materials

    EASA RuFAB- Runway Friction Characteristics Measurement & Aircraft Braking

    FAA Takeoff & Landing Perf. Assessment Aviation Rulemaking Committee

    Winter Operations, Friction Measurements & Conditions for Friction Predictions (AIBN)

    REOI WG has finished a formal safety study report

    results(cont)

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 15

    Application Tips and

    Checklist

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 16

    FAF1000 ft500ft50ft

    Stabilized Landing Stabilized Approach

    Go AroundAborted Landing

    Stabilized Approach Vs. Stabilized Landing

    FDA/FDM is good tool to monitor stabilized

    approach (refer to ALAR/FSF)

    How to define key parameters to monitor stabilized

    landing? The term of stabilized landing concept , by Jim Burin/FSF)

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 17

    Stabilized Landing GuidelinesA landing is stabilized when all of the following criteria are met: Fly a stabilized approach

    Height at threshold crossing is 50 ft

    Airspeed at threshold crossing is not more than Vref+10 kt,

    and not less than Vref

    Tailwind is no more than 10 kt for a non-conta. runway, no

    more than 0 kt for a conta. runway

    Touchdown on runway centerline at the touchdown aim

    point

    After touchdown, promptly transition to desired

    deceleration config.- brakes, spoilers, thrust reversers(note: once T/R have been activated, a go-around is no longer an option)

    Speed is less than 80 kt with 2,000 ft of runway remaining.

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    160 kt

    150 kt

    140 kt130 kt

    120 kt

    5 deg

    4 deg

    3 deg

    2 deg

    1 deg

    25 ft

    20 ft

    15 ft

    10 ft

    05 ft

    00 ft

    Runway Veeroff Vs. Crab & speed

    ).(

    )(

    ndeclinatiomagAngleDrift

    xSinVY

    headingmagneticACheadingtrueRWY

    GS

    ++=

    =

    During flare and De-

    rotation operation,

    consider crab angle of 5-

    deg, touchdown speed btw

    120 ~ 160kt, then the A/C

    lateral dev. 18 ~ 24 ft.

    If crabbing 3~ 5 deg and

    continue to fly 5 sec, then

    the A/C lateral dev. 50~ 125 ft.

    FDM/FOQA Heading Deviation

    at TKO/LND > 5 deg

    18

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    key parameters for stabilized landing

    Attitudes: bank < = 5 deg; pitch (related to A/C conf.)

    Crossing Runway Threshold: RA dev. 10 ft Vref 0 ~ +10 kt

    Load Factor: 1.3 ~ 1.6 g

    Long Flare: 12 ~ 14 sec (50 ft to M T/D)

    Long Landing: 2,000 ~ 2,500 ft (related to A/C)

    Heading deviation: = 2,500 ft (RA 50 ft ~ M T/D)Insufficient runway remaining:

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Runway Veeroff CaseB738 RV: RCTP RWY 05L MHD053 THD049

    RA 95& 30

    Down wind, bank > 5 deg

    RA 80

    Crab > 10 deg

    Condition RA 42 (0 s) M T/D (+8s) Drift to RHT(+12s) Max. drift (+16s)

    A/C MHD 44 40 38 31

    A/C DR 8.4 16.9 16.5 21.5

    A/CMHD-53 -9 -13 -15 -2220

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    veeroff13:50:12 M T/DRA 42

    053053053053

    31313131----53=53=53=53=----22222222

    S METAR 13:48 010/36 G52 RVR 500 TW25.68kt, LCW26.3kt

    (heavy rain) 13:53 010/37 G52 RVR 500

    FDR RA 100 ~ 50

    HW 26.8kt, LCW30kt

    Recommend Crosswind Guidelines for B737-800 : 27 kt (wet)

    Runway Veeroff CaseB738 RV: RCTP RWY 05L MHD053 THD049

    21

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 22

    Aircraft basic dimensions and wheel configuration

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Runway Tire Marks

    Black tire marks high friction, mostly dry runwayWhite erase marks lower friction, wet runwayNo marks almost no friction, flooded runway,

    (partial) dynamic or viscous hydroplaning.

    Dry runway -Main gear tire marks

    (heavy braking)

    23

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 24

    Dry Runway

    skiddingWet or conta. runway

    Reverted rubber

    skidding

    RIB ROB

    LIB- WEAR 95% RIB- WEAR 65%

    Damaged Tire Conditions

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 25

    How to Know the Water Depth?

    d = water depth, inches

    T = macro texture depth, inches

    L = drainage length, feet

    I = rainfall intensity, inches/hour

    S = cross slope, ft/ft

    Empirical model TTI model

    Direct measurement NASA water depth gauge

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 26

    Relationship of rainfall rate and water depth

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Relationship of hydroplaning critical speed and Tire Pressure

    27

    B744 VP 108-127ktM T/D airspeed140kt (DR 0.16g, 2 kt)

    (1)Tail wind 10 kt, at least 6 sec to encounter dynamic hydroplaning

    (2)Head wind 10 kt, at least 1 sec to encounter dynamic hydroplaning

    Spin down (rotating tire)Spin up (non-rotating tire)Spin down (rotating tire)Spin up (non-rotating tire)

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Yes No hydroplaning

    No

    Did A/C left blackrubber tire marks on the

    Runway?

    Evidence of revertedrubber on tire tread

    ?

    Yes

    Reverted rubber investigation:

    Antiskid & brake pedal

    Auto brake sys. & setting

    Runway texture & slope

    Runway friction & drainage

    Rainfall rate & water depth on

    runway & distribution

    Surface wind

    Tire tread depth & condition

    No

    FDR/QARData available ?

    Yes

    No

    A/C TD speedgreater than critical

    hydroplaning speed?7.7/9 SQRT(Tp)

    Did A/C manufacturerstopping distance analysis

    For wet runway()match FDR perf.?

    Yes

    No

    hyd

    rop

    lan

    ing

    Typ

    ical

    wet

    run

    way p

    erf

    .

    Good runwaytexture and tire

    tread?

    Yes

    Yes

    No

    hyd

    rop

    lan

    ing

    Viscous hydroplaning investigation:Except the tire inflation pressure, same asdynamic hydroplaning

    Confirm the ground tracks passed through:

    Rubber deposit areas;

    Threshold marking, touchdown zone

    Runway edge marking.

    NoDynamic hydroplaning investigation:

    Tire inflation pressure

    Tire tread depth & condition

    Runway texture & slope

    Runway friction & drainage

    Rainfall rate & water depth on

    runway & distribution

    Surface wind

    FDR key parameter:

    Braking devices

    Deceleration

    Ground & tire speed

    A/B mode

    BSCU status

    FMC/CMC fault messages

    Outsourcing items:

    Check- runway texture

    Check- runway friction

    Airworthy- A/B brake sys.

    Manufacturers perf.

    soft: aero., engine, & brake characteristics

    No

    Investigation Procedure for suspected hydroplaning

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 29

    ASC Site Survey Formsitem Contents Confirm time

    1 After received the aviation occurrence notification, contact the aircraft operator to turn off CVR power immediately.

    2 Supervise the aircraft operator to remove the Flight Recorders (CVR & FDR), and secure at airside management division.

    3 Perform the alcohol test for the occurrence flight crew.

    4 Mark and photography the damaged navaids and relevant debris, and FOD.

    5 Locate the position of nose gear and main gears, inward photography of the aircraft (8 pieces).

    6 Follow the aircraft ground tracks to aircraft stopped place, take relevant photos.

    7 For wet runway conditions, perform the pavement observation Damp/ Wet/ Water patch/

    Flooded; If applicable, measured the water depth_______(mm)

    8 Settle an appropriate place for the flight crew to wait for interview.

    Note: suggested equipment ( waterproof of digital camera, GPS)

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 30

    Sample of site survey

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop

    Runway Overrun CaseMD-80 RO: RCQC RWY 02 LDA 7,382 ft; light rain

    MD-80 AFM, tail wind limitation 10 kt

    ATC wind 16/170, RVR 3,200 m

    A/P disengaged, tailwind 21kt; touchdown tailwind 14kt.

    During the A/C touchdown (T/D), both spoilers fully deployed

    After T/D 3 sec, T/R in REV IDLE about 10sec; then move

    to 1.2 ~ 1.6 %RPM

    After T/D 7 sec, brake pedal reached max. and until A/C stopbeyond the end of runway about 330 ft.

    31

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 32

    RA 50

    16 sec

    6 sec 2.5 sec

    MT/D NT/D veeroff

    Runway Overrun CaseB747 RV: RCTP RWY 24 heavy rain

    After MT/D, combination of floating and weathervane effect, ASC excluded the possibility of hydroplaning

  • 3rd AsiaSASI Workshop 33

    ConclusionsStabilized approach and stabilized landing are key effects

    to mitigate the risk of runway excursion.

    The study reviewed the accidents involving runway

    excursion in the last 50 years, and collected many

    technical reports, to develop investigation tools, on-scene

    checklists, and hydroplaning investigation procedures.

    In an occurrence involving with suspected hydroplaning,

    preserving easy loss of evidences is the first priority.

    Evaluating runway friction and aircraft braking

    performance is a challenging task - wind, rainfall rate, the

    combination of hydroplaning and weathervaneetc.