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What Is the Meaning of this Symbol?. Swastika. Ancient symbol used for over 3,000 years meaning good to be (good luck) Many different positive connotations used by many cultures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • What Is the Meaning of this Symbol?

  • SwastikaAncient symbol used for over 3,000 years meaning good to be (good luck)

    Many different positive connotations used by many cultures

    Hitler, a frustrated artist, was responsible for propaganda development for National Socialist Party; in 1920 he selected the swastika as an emblem of racial purity eternally anti-Semitic



    Criminal offenses motivated by hatred against a victim based on his or her race, religion, sexual orientation, handicap, ethnicity, or national origin.

    BJA Monograph: A Policymakers Guide to Hate Crimes (November 1999)

  • Revised Code of Washington RCW 9A.36.080Malicious Harassment

    Maliciously & intentionally causes:

    Physical injuryPhysical damage to propertyThreatens/puts a person in reasonable fear of injury to person or propertyClass C Felony

  • Victim Status Required by RCW

    RaceColorReligionAncestryNational OriginGenderSexual OrientationHandicap

  • HistoryEarly Romans persecuted the Christians

    1940s: Nazis extermination of 6.5 million Jews referred to as the final solution

    1994: Genocide in Rwanda (Tutsis v. Hutus tribal warfare resulting in 850,000 deaths)

    1995-97: Ethnic cleansing in Bosnia (murder, rape, expulsion of Bosnian citizens)

  • Significance of Hate Crimes One crime targets every member of that group

    Psychological impact is felt by all members of that group

    Community stability is lessened

    Retaliation and counter-retaliation can occur

  • Victims In United StatesAfrican Americans (most frequent target)

    Jewish population


    Muslims (9/11)

    Asian Americans India (intellect, economic, outsourcing)

    Federal government workers

  • Individual PerpetratorsScapegoat mentality ((intellect, economic, outsourcing)

    View their targets as threats to safety and property values

    Thrill seekers randomly select their victims, minority status is interchangeable, act on impulse

    Mission Offenders though a minority, believe they are on a mission to rid the world of a perceived evil

  • Psychology of the PerpetratorThe criminal invokes race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation as a pretext for doing whatever he wants. He is no stranger to assault, robbery, or rape to begin with. Victimizing a person from a particular group that he professes to dislike heightens the excitement and increases the satisfaction. There is nothing unique about the psychology of hate-crime perpetrators. They are criminals just like any other.

    Stanton E. Samenow, Ph. D., Inside The Criminal Mind (2003)

  • Hate Crime StatisticsMeaningful statistics are difficult to establish

    Hate crimes are typically underreported

  • Problems With StatisticsMany LE agencies lack staff, inclination, or technical expertise to report statistics

    Certain communities underreport to preserve cultural, political, and economic stability

    Victims reluctant to report to avoid humiliation (loss of dignity), fear of being outed, fear of deportation, and no trust in public officials-authority

  • Characteristics of Hate CrimeMost crimes are committed by strangers

    Most likely to involve physical assault

    More likely to result in physical injury caused by imprecise weapons of opportunity (bricks, bats, tree limbs)

  • Climate of Hate Shock radioRacial stereotypes on TV and in moviesRacial code languagePersonal Experiences

  • Trigger Incidents

    Rodney King incident acquittal of four police officers caused 1992 Los Angeles riots

    Post 9/11 Mosque Burnings

  • Patriot / White Supremacist Movement



    Montana Freeman (Constitutionalist)

    Anti-abortion radicals

  • A Shift In StrategyDisclaimers for their members to not commit crimesCyber-cultureUnderground booksMagazinesMusic

  • Rock Against Communism (RAC)Misrepresents its target and has a largely white supremacist, anti-Semitic messageWhite Power music

  • Music September 2004

    Educator Alert! Hate Music Label Targets Schools This is to alert you to an issue with deeply troubling implications for our nations schools. Panzerfaust, a white power music company based in Minnesota, plans to target youth through the distribution of 100,000 racist and anti-Semitic CDs to schools and other locations throughout the United States.


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