Westward Expansion in the Late Nineteenth Century This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress

Download Westward Expansion in the Late Nineteenth Century This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Westward Expansion in the Late Nineteenth Century This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress Slide 2 Waves of Westward Expansion 1. 1760s 1800s Pioneers crossed the Appalachian Mountains and settled the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys 1. 1760s 1800s Pioneers crossed the Appalachian Mountains and settled the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys 2. 1840s 1860s Settlers from Europe, East Coast of U.S., and Midwest went to fertile valleys of Oregon and the goldfields of California 2. 1840s 1860s Settlers from Europe, East Coast of U.S., and Midwest went to fertile valleys of Oregon and the goldfields of California 3. 1860s 1900 Pioneers settled the Great Plains turned grassland into farmland, Homestead Act, 1862 made travel possible for many 3. 1860s 1900 Pioneers settled the Great Plains turned grassland into farmland, Homestead Act, 1862 made travel possible for many Slide 3 Mining Bonanza Gold and silver strikes Big ones - Pikes Peak (Co), and Comstock Lode (Nevada entered Union) Gold and silver strikes Big ones - Pikes Peak (Co), and Comstock Lode (Nevada entered Union) Boomtowns- San Francisco, Denver/ Ghost towns- lifestyle? Boomtowns- San Francisco, Denver/ Ghost towns- lifestyle? California hostility between Native born Americans and Chinese immigrants Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) California hostility between Native born Americans and Chinese immigrants Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Slide 4 Cattle Kingdom Open-range ranching Open-range ranching Cattle drives Cattle drives Influence of railroads ship out cattle to markets from Abilene Kansas, Chicago Influence of railroads ship out cattle to markets from Abilene Kansas, Chicago Changed American diet beef eating society Changed American diet beef eating society Closing of open-range ranching due to: Closing of open-range ranching due to: winter blizzard and drought (1885 1886) winter blizzard and drought (1885 1886) Homesteaders Homesteaders Gliddens barbed wire Gliddens barbed wire Slide 5 Day of the cowboy Myths and reality Myth Action, adventure, romantic Myth Action, adventure, romantic Reality Hard work, a lot of waiting, Dangerous, Mix of European-Americans, African- Americans, and Mexican- Americans Reality Hard work, a lot of waiting, Dangerous, Mix of European-Americans, African- Americans, and Mexican- Americans Slide 6 Farming the Plains Great American Desert Great American Desert Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged settlers with free land(160 acres if built house and lived on it for 5 year Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged settlers with free land(160 acres if built house and lived on it for 5 year Railroad promotions (1870 1900) encourage settlement Railroad promotions (1870 1900) encourage settlement Problems included: severe weather, falling prices for crops, dry land, no trees, new machinery costs Problems included: severe weather, falling prices for crops, dry land, no trees, new machinery costs Sodbusters Settlers used Nebraska marble to build soddie homes easy and cheap, cozy for mice and snakes in the walls Sodbusters Settlers used Nebraska marble to build soddie homes easy and cheap, cozy for mice and snakes in the walls Slide 7 American Ingenuity Pioneers made fires with twigs, grass, corncobs, and buffalo or cow chips (dried) droppings Pioneers made fires with twigs, grass, corncobs, and buffalo or cow chips (dried) droppings John Deeres invention of the steel plow sliced through sod John Deeres invention of the steel plow sliced through sod Mail-order windmills for power and irrigation Mail-order windmills for power and irrigation Dry farming and Deep plowing techniques Dry farming and Deep plowing techniques Grew wheat, corn, oats, barley and giant potatoes Grew wheat, corn, oats, barley and giant potatoes Slide 8 Moving Out West African-Americans after the Civil War many former slaves followed Benjamin Singleton to an all-black community in Kansas. These pioneers became known as Exodusters. African-Americans after the Civil War many former slaves followed Benjamin Singleton to an all-black community in Kansas. These pioneers became known as Exodusters. Buffalo Soldiers established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army Buffalo Soldiers established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army Laura Ingalls Wilder grew up on plains in the 1870s and 1880s Little House books brought Plains to life for later generations Laura Ingalls Wilder grew up on plains in the 1870s and 1880s Little House books brought Plains to life for later generations Slide 9 Moving Out West Children fed animals, gathered berries, nuts, fuel, plowed, hauled water Children fed animals, gathered berries, nuts, fuel, plowed, hauled water Women looked after children, fed chickens, gardened, helped plow, and did the doctoring Women looked after children, fed chickens, gardened, helped plow, and did the doctoring FUN Hay rides, Dances, Card-Playing, Quilting Bees, Corn Husking Contests, Barn- Raising, Shopping in Town, Parades FUN Hay rides, Dances, Card-Playing, Quilting Bees, Corn Husking Contests, Barn- Raising, Shopping in Town, Parades Slide 10 Subordination of Indians: dispersal of tribes Misunderstandings with American government different ideas about land ownership, translators drunk and communicated poorly Misunderstandings with American government different ideas about land ownership, translators drunk and communicated poorly Dawes Act adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians Dawes Act adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians Reservation Policy (Ft. Laramie. Atkinson) land often poor, inefficient supplies, sickness Reservation Policy (Ft. Laramie. Atkinson) land often poor, inefficient supplies, sickness Slide 11 Indian Wars Conflicts due to settlement of miners, cattlemen, homesteaders, failed treaties Conflicts due to settlement of miners, cattlemen, homesteaders, failed treaties Sand Creek 1864 Cheyenne women and children massacred Sand Creek 1864 Cheyenne women and children massacred Sioux War 1865 1867 army column wiped out by Sioux Sioux War 1865 1867 army column wiped out by Sioux 1870s new round of wars included legendary figures Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and George Custer 1870s new round of wars included legendary figures Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and George Custer Slide 12 Carlisle School Before and After Slide 13 Frederick Jackson Turners Frontier Thesis (1893) The Significance of the Frontier in American History He argued that 300 years of frontier experience had shaped the unique character of American society. He felt the frontier led to an American sense of independence and individuality. It acted as a social leveler, led to inventiveness, as well as wasteful behavior (think of the buffalo). The Significance of the Frontier in American History He argued that 300 years of frontier experience had shaped the unique character of American society. He felt the frontier led to an American sense of independence and individuality. It acted as a social leveler, led to inventiveness, as well as wasteful behavior (think of the buffalo). </p>