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  • UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

    Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering

    LASER PROCESSING OF NON-LINEAR INCLINE CUTTING

    Turki Diwan Hussein

    Master of Manufacturing Engineering

    (Manufacturing System Engineering)

    2013

  • LASER PROCESSING OF NON-LINEAR INCLINE CUTTING

    TURKI DIW AN HUSSEIN

    A thesis submitted

    in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Manufacturing Engineering

    (Manufacturing System Engineering)

    Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering

    UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

    2013

  • DECLARATION

    I declare that this thesis entitled "Laser Processing of Non-Linear Incline Cutting" is the

    results of my own research except as cited in references. The thesis has not been accepted for

    any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree .

    Signature

    Name

    Date

    .. ~,y. . ., ~ .......... Turki Diwan Hussein

    .... 6 .. / .. 1 .. ; ... ;Lo .. J .. 3

  • APPROVAL

    I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opnion this thesis is sufficient in terms

    of scope and quality for the award of Master of Manufacturing Engineering (Manufacturing

    System Engineering).

    Signature

    Supervisor

    Date

    Prof. Madya. Ir. Dr. Sivarao Subramonian

    ............. fi./.1./.~~J ............... . fiRIIWTAl li.MAAO-

    Fallulti Kejuruteraan Pemt>uatan Universiti T9knikal Malaysia Melat.a

    Durian Tungga~ Melaka.

  • ABSTRACT

    This research is to find the optimal parameters of machining process. The research conduct based on Design of Experiment DOE analysis. In this research the experiment designed to find out the interaction between the variables to evaluate the high performance responses of machining process. The experiment is design based on the objectives that want to be achieved in this research. The analysis is run by using the Minitab Software. In this research, Response Surface Methodology and factorial design used to compared in term of modeling capabilities. The input parameters evaluated were gas pressure, power supply, and cutting speed; meanwhile the output responses being kerf width and surface roughness. The laser cutting process is one of the widely used techniques for cut various thickness of material for many applications such as fiber, steel, wood etc. In the area cutting material, it can be improved drastically with the application of difficult cutting material. Application of cut on mild steel for various machining techniques, such as bevel linear and bevel non-linear cutting, requires different cut characteristics. From that, being highly dependent on the process parameters under which they were performed. To efficiently optimise and customise the kerf width and surface roughness characteristics, machining of laser cutting conduct via modelling using RSM methodology was proposed. In this research, non-linear incline cutting is done on critical laser processing of mild steel materials optimization . This research predominantly focuses to investigate the correlation between laser machining parameter with the responses kerf width and surface roughness. This research also highlights the experimental control parameters of mild steel laser processing with the responses.

  • ABSTRAK

    Kajian ini adalah untuk mencari parameter optimum dalam proses pemesinan. Kajian penyelidikan ini berdasarkan "Design of Experiment". Dalam kajian ini "DOE" bertujuan untuk mengetahui interaksi antara pembolehubah untuk menilai respons prestasi tinggi dalam proses pemesinan. Analisis ini dijalankan dengan menggunakan perisian Minitab itu. Dalam kajian ini, "Response Surface Methodology" dan "Factorial Design" akan digunakan untuk dibandingkan dari segi keupayaan model. Parameter input dinilai ialah tekanan gas, bekalan kuasa, dan kelajuan pemotongan; sementara itu maklumbalas adalah Iebar garitan dan kekasaran permukaan. Proses pemotongan laser adalah salah satu teknik yang digunakan secara meluas untuk pelbagai ketebalan potong bahan untuk banyak aplikasi seperti serat, besi, kayu dan lain-lain Dalam bidang memotong bahan, ia boleh diperbaiki secara drastik dengan permohonan memotong bahan yang sukar. Pengunaan pemotongan pada keluli lembut untuk pelbagai teknik mesin, seperti serong linear dan memotong serong bukan linear, memerlukan ciri-ciri yang berbeza dipotong. Dari itu, Proces paramter memainkan peranan penting dalam menentukan potongan terbaik. Dengan mengoptimumkan dan menyesuaikan Iebar garitan dan ciri-ciri kekasaran permukaan, pemesinan pemotongan dijalanakan melalui model dengan menggunakan kaedah RSM telah dicadangkan. Dalam luljian ini, pemotongan serong bukan linear dilakukan di laser pemotongan. Kajian ini terutamanya memberi tumpuan untuk menyiasat hubungan antara parameter pemesinan laser dengan maklumbalas Iebar garitan dan kekasaran permukaan. Kajian ini juga menunjukkan parameter kawalan eksperimen untuk pemotongan keluli lembut

  • DEDICATION

    I would like to present my work to those who did not stop their daily support since I was

    born, my dear mother and my dear wife. They never hesitate to provide me all the facilities

    to push me foreword as much as they can. This work is a simple and humble reply to their

    much goodness I have taken over during that time. I don't forget my brothers, sisters, son,

    daughter, uncle and those entire how I love. Also to my father, grandfather, aunt and uncle

    (Allah's mercy them).

    CJ'urkf diwan J{ ussein

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    First and foremost, praise be to Allah, for giving me this opportunity, the strength and the

    patience to complete my thesis finally, after all the challenges and difficulties. I would like

    to thank my supervisor, Prof. Madya. Ir. Dr. Sivarao Subramonian for his high motivation

    and most significant contribution in this thesis.

    I would also like to thank Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of Iraq,

    the Dean of Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering Prof. Madya. Dr. Mohd Rizal Salleh

    and Prof. Madya. Dr. Mohd Warikh Bin Abd Rashid. Furthermore, I want to thank my

    friends who have helped and motivated me throughout. May Allah reward them all

    abundantly, Sincere thanks to all.

    Turf&

  • TABLE OF CONTENT

    PAGE

    ABSTRACT i

    ABSTRAK ii

    DEDICATION iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

    TABLE OF CONTENT v

    LIST OF TABLES vii

    LIST OF FIGURES ix

    LIST OF SYMBOLS xi

    LIST OF APPENDICES xii

    CHAPTER 1

    1. INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Background 1

    1.2 Laser Parameters 2

    1.2.1 Laser Cut Quality Characteristics 3

    1.3 Problem statement 4

    1.4 Research Objective 5

    1.5 Research Scopes 5

    2. LITERATURE REVIEW 6

    2.1 Introduction 6

    2.2 Metal Cutting Process 7

    2.3 Laser Cutting 9

    2.3.1 Types of Cutting 12

    2.3 .1.1 Laser Fushion Cutting 12

    2.3.1.2 Laser Flame Cutting 12

    2.3.1.3 Laser Sublimation 12

    2.4 Laser Types 13

    v

  • 2.4.1 C02 Laser 14

    2.4.2 Nd:Y AG Laser 15

    2.4.3 Fibre Laser 16

    2.4.4 Laser Gas Assistance 17

    2.4.5 Oxygen as Assist Gas 18

    2.4.6 Nitrogen as Assist Gas 19

    2.5 Laser Cut Quality 20

    2.5.1 Laser Cutting Typical Imperfection 23

    2.6 Optimization of Cutting Process Parameters 24

    2.6.1 Fuzzy Logic 24

    2.6.2 Genetic Algorithm 25

    2.6.3 Taguchi Technique 25

    2.6.4 Artificial Neural Network (ANN) 26

    2.6.5 Response Surface Methodology (RSM) 27

    2.7 Related Work 29

    2.8 The Research Work 31

    3. METHODOLOGY 32

    3.1 Research Methodology 32

    3.2 Initial Design 33

    3.3 Flow Chart of Research Methodology 34

    3.4 Work Material 35

    3.5 Cutting Parameter 35

    3.6 Cutting Machine and Laser Cutting 39

    3.7 Analytical Tool 42

    3.7.1 Response Surface Methodology (RSM) 43

    4. RESULT & DISCUSSION 45

    4.1 Modelling of the Cut Kerf Width and Roughness 45

    4.2 RSM Modelling of Kerf Width With Respect to Laser 46

    Cutting Process Parameters

    4.3 Response Surface Regression: Kerf versus Pressure, 57

    Power, Speed

  • 4.4 Discuss Interpreting the Results 59

    4.5 Interpretting the Results 56

    4.6 Response Optimization 57

    4.7 Discuss Interpretting the Results Optimization Plot 58

    4.8 Interpretting the Results 59

    4.9 Response Surface Regression: Roughness versus Pressure, 60

    Power, Speed

    4.10 Interpretting the Results and Discussion 68

    4.11 Response Optimization 72

    5. CONCLUSION 74

    5.1 Conclusion 74

    5.2 New Contributions to Body of Knowledge 76

    5.3 Future Work 76

    REFERENCE 78

    APPENDIX A: Measuring for Laser Process Kerf Width 87

    Non-Linear Incline Cutting

    APPENDIXB: Measuring for Laser Process Surface Roughness 97

    Non-Linear Incline Cutting

    APPENDIXC: Experimental for Laser Process Kerf Width and 102

    Surface Roughness Non-Linear Incline Cutting

    APPENDIXD: Experimental for Laser Process Kerf Width and 104

    Surface Roughness of Non-Linear Incline Cutting

  • LIST OF TABLES

    TABLE TITLE PAGE

    2.1 Parameters for Laser Cutting of Mild Steels with Laser 13

    Cutting Oxygen Including Pressure and Volume

    Requirements

    3.1 Parameters Range 36

    3.2 Parameters Values during the Central Composite Design 37

    3.3 Experimental Layout for Response 38

    4.1 Experimental Results for Laser Process Kerf Width 47

    Non-Linear Incline Cutting of Bevels a

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