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  • UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

    OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE METHOD FOR AUTOMATED GUIDED

    VEHICLE (AGV)

    This report submitted in accordance with requirement of the Universiti Teknikal

    Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for the Bachelor Degree of Manufacturing Engineering

    (Robotics and Automation) with Honours.

    by

    NASHRUL ADZIM B. NASHRUDDIN

    FACULTY OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

    2009

  • DECLARATION

    I hereby, declared this report entitled Obstacle Avoidance Method For Automated

    Guided Vehicle (AGV) is the results of my own research except as cited in

    references.

    Signature : ..

    Authors name : ..

    Date : ..

  • APPROVAL

    This report is submitted to the Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering of UTeM as a

    partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Manufacturing

    Engineering (Robotics and Automation) with Honours. The member of the

    supervisory committee is as follow:

    (Signature of Supervisor)

    ..

    (Official Stamp of Supervisor)

  • APPROVAL

    This report is submitted to the Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering of UTeM as a

    partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Manufacturing

    Engineering (Robotics and Automation) with Honours. The member of the

    supervisory committee is as follow:

    (Signature of Principal Supervisor)

    ..

    (Official Stamp of Principal Supervisor)

    (Signature of Co-Supervisor)

    ..

    (Official Stamp of Co-Supervisor)

  • i

    ABSTRACT

    From the previous industrial training, author has been involved in automated guided

    vehicle (AGV) route construction. The interest of the AGV thus makes this report

    happened. This report is mainly consists of a study, research, and development of

    AGV programming and platform. The research starts with a literature review about

    obstacle avoidance for AGV from previous researcher, studies from related books

    and others. The development of AGV platform is done so that the obstacle avoidance

    method programming can be shown in real situation. Mainly, a robot development

    consists of three main parts: mechanical part, electrical and electronic part, and

    programming part. As for mechanical part is a chassis design, shaft design and any

    mechanical relevant part while for electronic part is a circuit design for sensor and

    motor driver. The development for the AGV platform is used machining process

    such as lathe, laser cutting, milling and non machining process such as fabrication.

    The electronic circuit had been constructed and then attached to a microcontroller

    which acts as the AGVs main controller for the whole AGV movement.

    Programming was done using C Language for the AGV path planning and obstacle

    avoidance and it is based on rule-base expert system. The programme was compiled

    in a form of hex file and was downloaded inside the peripheral interface controllers

    (PIC). Thus AGV can move like autonomous robot and it will use all available

    sensors such as line following and obstacle sensors to detects any guide tape or

    obstacle. Rule-base system will be used as AGV decision making process. If it meets

    with any obstacle in its way it will execute the rule base system to avoid the obstacle.

  • ii

    ABSTRAK

    Daripada pengalaman menjalani latihan industri penulis telah terlibat dengan projek

    pembinaan jalan AGV. Oleh kerana minat terhadap AGV, maka terhasillah penulisan

    ilmiah ini. Secara keseluruhan laporan ini mengandungi kajian dan pembangunan

    platfom AGV. Kajian mengenai pengelakkan halangan AGV dimulakan dengan

    melihat rujukan daripada penyelidik terdahulu melalui jurnal, pembelajaran daripada

    buku berkaitan dan juga sumber ilmiah lain. Pembangunan platfom AGV adalah

    berdasarkan pembinaan asas sebuah robot. Platfom AGV dibangunkan supaya

    program pengelakkan halangan dapat ditunjukkan dalam keadaan sebenar. Secara

    umumnya robot mengandungi tiga bahagian utama iaitu: bahagian mekanikal,

    bahagian elektriakl dan elektronik dan juga bahagian pengaturcaraan. Untuk

    bahagian mekanikal ianya meliputi rekabentuk casis dan juga shaf tayar. Bahagian

    elektronik diberi penekanan mengenai rekabentuk litar untuk pengesanan dan

    pengendali motor. Pengaturcaraan pula adalah untuk merancang pergerakan dan

    pengelakkan halangan AGV. Pengaturcaraan telah menggunakan bahasa C dimana

    bahasa C ini akan diubah kepada bentuk hex dan akan dimuat turunkan ke dalam PIC.

    Hanya selepas itu barulah AGV dapat bergerak secara automatik sepenuhnya. AGV

    akan menggunakan sensor garisan untuk mengesan garisan dan sensor halangan

    untuk mengesan halangan sebagai panduan untuk bergerak. Pengelakkan halangan

    AGV adalah berdasarkan penggunaan sistem berasaskan aturan. Pengawal mikro

    atau PIC akan melaksanakan pengaturcaraan ini jika AGV terlibat dengan halangan

    sewaktu bergerak ke tempat yang telah ditetapkan. Cara untuk AGV mengelak

    halangan ini adalah berdasarkan sistem berasaskan aturan.

  • iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I would like to thank to ALLAH S.W.T because of His help author could finished

    this report. I also like to thank my supervisor, En. Mohd Hisham b. Nordin because

    of his supervision for the report writing and the PSM development progress. As for

    ISUZU HICOM Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. (IHMSB), the place where author learned about

    AGV, a great thank because allowing author to take AGV project as PSM project.

    Last but not least to all author family, especially authors parent and sibling whose

    give a lot of support for this PSM project, IHMSB Engineering Department,

    Production Engineering (PE) section, Kaizen branch (Engineering Workshop)

    technician, ISUZU technician and anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in

    this PSM project.

    Adzim

  • iv

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    Abstract i

    Abstrak ii

    Acknowledgement iii

    Table of Content iv

    List of Figures vii

    List Abbreviations ix

    1.0 INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Project Introduction 1

    1.2 Objective 2

    1.3 Scope 2

    1.4 Problem statement 3

    1.5 Conclusion 3

    2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 4

    2.1 What is AGV? 4

    2.2 Types of AGV 5

    2.3 Expert Systems 9

    2.3.1 The Structure of Expert System 11

    2.3.2 Knowledge Engineering 13

    2.3.3 The Inference Engine 15

    2.3.4 How Expert Systems Explain Their Reasoning 16

    2.3.5 Confidence Estimates 17

    2.4 Obstacle Avoidance Method 17

    2.5 Conclusion 19

  • v

    3.0 METHODOLOGY 20

    3.1 Introduction 20

    3.2 Development planning 21

    3.2.1 PSM 1 Gantt Chart 21

    3.2.2 PSM 2 Gantt Chart 22

    3.2.3 Development Process Flowchart 23

    3.2.4 Development Process Flowchart Explanation 24

    3.2.5 Programming Flowchart for Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance 25

    3.2.6 Programming Flowchart for Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance

    Explanation 26

    3.2.7 AGV Platform Drawing 27

    3.3 Parts selection 28

    3.3.1 Mechanical Structure Parts 28

    3.3.1.1 Tire 28

    3.3.1.2 Acrylic sheet for AGV Platform chassis 29

    3.3.1.3 Aluminium Square Tube 30

    3.3.2 Electrical and Electronic Parts 31

    3.3.2.1 Multimeter 31

    3.3.2.2 Battery 32

    3.3.2.3 DC Motor 33

    3.3.2.4 Microcontroller 34

    3.3.2.5 Ultrasonic transducer 35

    3.3.2.6 Infrared transducer 36

    3.3.2.7 Light Emitting Diode (LED) 37

    3.3.2.8 Transistor 38

    3.3.2.9 Resistor 39

    3.3.2.10 Potentiometer 40

    3.3.2.11 Capacitor 41

    3.3.2.12 Wire 42

    3.3.2.13 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) 43

    3.3.2.14 Voltage Regulator 44

    3.3.2.15 Diode 45

    3.4 Method of Manufacturing 46

    3.4.1 Machining Method 46

  • vi

    3.4.1.1 Laser Cutting Machine 46

    3.4.1.2 Lathe Machine 48

    3.4.1.3 Milling Machine 49

    3.4.1.4 Horizontal Bandsaw Machine 50

    3.4.2 Soldering Method 51

    3.4.2.1 Soldering Iron 51

    3.4.2.2 Solder Sucker 52

    3.4.2.3 Flux core Solder 53

    3.4.2.4 Wire Stripper 54

    3.5 Method of Programming 55

    3.5.1 C programming 55

    3.5.1.1 Programming a PIC using C language 56

    3.5.1.2 Compiler for C language 56

    3.6 Conclusion 57

    4.0 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 58

    4.1 AGV platform development 58

    4.1.1 Tire coupling design 59

    4.1.1.1 Tire coupling machining process 61

    4.1.2 AGV chassis design 63

    4.1.2.1 AGV chassis fabrication 64

    4.1.2.2 AGV chassis assembly 65

    4.2 AGV electronic circuit development 66

    4.2.1 Line sensor circuit 66

    4.2.1.1 Line sensor circuit development 68

    4.2.2 Obstacle sensor circuit 70

    4.2.3 Motor driver circuit 74

    4.3 Programming development 76

    4.3.1 Operational flowchart fo

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