types of pollution- noise pollution -
Post on 11-Apr-2017
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SUBMITTED BY :SAMRIDHI GUPTA1542022B.ARCH SEM-2ndSUBMITTED TO :DR. MUKTATOPIC: NOISE POLLUTION
WHAT IS POLLUTION ?
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change . Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light .
NOISE POLLUTIONNoise pollution or noise disturbance is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life.
Industrialization: Most of the industries use big machines which are capable of producing large amount of noise. Apart from that, various equipments like compressors, generators, exhaust fans, grinding mills also participate in producing big noise. Therefore, the workers in these factories and industries wearing ear plugs to minimize the effect of noise.
In most of the developing countries, poor urban planning also play a vital role. Congested houses, large families sharing small space, fight over parking, frequent fights over basic amenities leads to noise pollution which may disrupt the environment of society.
Noise is at its peak in most of the social events. Whether it is marriage, parties, pub, disc or place of worship, people normally flout rules set by the local administration and create nuisance in the area. People play songs on full volume and dance till midnight which makes the condition of people living nearby pretty worse. In markets, you can see people selling clothes via making loud noise to attract the attention of people.
Transportation: Large number of vehicles on roads, aeroplanes flying over houses, underground trains produce heavy noise and people get it difficult to get accustomed to that. The high noise leads to a situation wherein a normal person lose the ability to hear properly.
Under construction activities like mining, construction of bridges, dams, buildings, stations, roads, flyovers take place in almost every part of the world. These construction activities take place everyday as we need more buildings, bridges to accommodate more people and to reduce traffic congestion. The down point is that these construction equipments are too noisy.
Household Chores: We people are surrounded by gadgets and use them extensively in our daily life. Gadgets like TV, mobile , mixer grinder, pressure cooker, vacuum cleaners , washing machine and dryer, cooler, air conditioners are minor contributors to the amount of noise that is produced but it affects the quality of life of your neighborhood in a bad way.
EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION
Any unwanted sound that our ears have not been built to filter can cause problems within the body. Our ears can take in a certain range of sounds without getting damaged. Man made noises such as jackhammers, horns, machinery, airplanes and even vehicles can be too loud for our hearing range. Constant exposure to loud levels of noise can easily result in the damage of our ear drums and loss of hearing. It also reduces our sensitivity to sounds that our ears pick up unconsciously to regulate our bodys rhythm.
Excessive noise pollution in working areas such as offices, construction sites, bars and even in our homes can influence psychological health. Studies show that the occurrence of aggressive behavior, disturbance of sleep, constant stress, fatigue and hypertension can be linked to excessive noise levels. These in turn can cause more severe and chronic health issues later in life.
Loud noise can certainly hamper your sleeping pattern and may lead to irritation and uncomfortable situations. Without a good night sleep, it may lead to.problems related to fatigue and your performance may go down in office as well as at home. It is therefore recommended to take a sound sleep to give your body proper rest
Blood pressure levels, cardio-vascular disease and stress related heart problems are on the rise. Studies suggest that high intensity noise causes high blood pressure and increases heart beat rate as it disrupts the normal blood flow. Bringing them to a manageable level depends on our understanding noise pollution and how we tackle it.
High decibel noise can put trouble and may not allow two people to communicate freely. This may lead to misunderstanding and you may get difficult understanding the other person. Constant sharp noise can give you severe headache and disturb your emotional balance.
Effect on Wildlife:
Wildlife faces far more problems than humans because noise pollution since they are more dependent on sound. Animals develop a better sense of hearing than us since their survival depends on it. The ill effects of excessive noise begin at home. Pets react more aggressively in households where there is constant noise.
To prevent and control noise pollution it is necessary to create public awareness. Only law is not sufficient. People must be made aware of the harmful consequences of noise pollution.People should be made aware that excessive noise beyond certain limits may cause deafness.They should know that injuries caused by sound pollution are often irreversible.There should be minimum use of sound producing instruments. There should be proper regulations for the use of loudspeakers and other devices that produce noise beyond that are beyond the toleration limits of human-beings.The Pollution Control Board and the High Court have already taken effective measures to bring sound pollution under control. Adequate measures should be taken to ensure that noise related restrictions are not violated.Anti-pollution laws should be enacted and enforced.Ban of fire crackers should be imposed and electric horns should be replaced by bulb horns.The use of microphones should be controlled and regulated.
Indian Constitution and noise pollution controlThe Indian Constitution of 1950 did not have any provisions directly dealing with environmental pollution. But the 42nd Amendment of Constitution passed in 1996 inserted article 48-A and Article 51-A to protect and improve the environment.Thus, India became one of the few countries of the world which enshrined in its Constitution, a commitment to environmental protection and improvement. It has interjected a new dimension to public responsibility by obligating the Central Government to protect and improve the environment for the good of society as a whole. So the Constitution makes a dual provision by way of directives to the state for the protection and improvement of the environment and imposing a duty on every citizen to help in the preservation of the natural environment.
In State of Rajasthan v. G Chawla, a unique question came up before the Supreme Court whether the State Legislation has right to prevent and control noise pollution and make it punishable? Do such restrictions or State enactments amount to violation of the freedom of speech for prevention and control of noises? The Supreme Court was of the opinion that this freedom is not absolute. It is subjected to the restrictions under Article 19(2). This clause (2) of Article 19 provides certain reasonable restrictions which can be in the freedom of speech and expression. Thus, if any law, pre-constitutional or post-constitutional, imposes reasonable restrictions in the interest of public order, it is constitutional .
The court made it clear that persons are free to make noise but not to transgress the right of others to live peacefully. As soon as noise become a nuisance, interferes in the use or enjoyment of property or annoys others, the laws imposing restriction will come into operation and the constitutional freedom activity. Such activity is also violative of the constitutional duty imposed on every citizen of India under Article 51-A to protect and improve the natural environment.
Other Laws regarding Noise PollutionSection 133, Code of Criminal Procedure the magistrate court have been empowered to issue remove or abate nuisance caused by noise pollution u/s 133 empowers and executive magistrate to interfere and remove a public nuances in the first instance with a conditional order and then with a permanent one the provision can be utilized in case of nuance of environment nature. In Law of Torts noise pollution is considered as a civil wrong. Under Law of Torts a civil suit can be filed claiming damages for the nuisance. For filing a suit under Law of Torts a plaintiff is required to comply with some if the requirement of torts of nuisances which are interference should be with the use and enjoyment of land. , there should be reasonable interference.
Section-2 (A) of the Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981 includes noise in the definition of Air Pollution This section states Air pollution means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance including noise present in the atmosphere. Such concentration as may be or tend to injuries to human being or other living creatures or plants or property or environment.Section-2 (C) of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 defines environmental pollution to mean the presence in the environment of any environmental pollutant.In a landmark judgement given by apex court in Mulan Mufti Syud and others V. State of West Bengal AIR 1999, The court held imposition of restriction on the use of microphone and loudspeaker by the state govt. between 9 pm to 7 am which inter alia include restriction of azan on microphone in early hours, before 7 am is not violative of Article 25 of Constitution of India guarantying of freedom of religion.
Conclusion Have a rigid rules and regulations regarding prevention and contr