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  • TRACKING ANIMALS WITH GPS

    AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE HELD AT THE MACAULAY LAND USE RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    ABERDEEN, 12-13 MARCH 2001

    Sponsored by:

    Lotek Wireless, 115 Pony Drive, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada, L3Y 7B5,TVP Positioning AB,Televilt, Bandygatan 2, 711 34 Lindesberg, Sweden and Vectronic Aerospace GMbH, Carl-Steele-Str. 12, D-12489 Berlin, Germany

    ISBN 0 7084 0643 2

  • CONTENTS

    Foreword..................................................................................................................................................................................................piiiIain J Gordon

    CASE STUDIES IN THE USE OF GPS FOR TRACKING ANIMALS

    Tracking animals with GPS:The first 10 years ......................................................................................................p1Arthur R Rodgers

    Evaluating elk habitat interactions with GPS collars ..................................................................................p11Mark A Rumble, Lakhdar Benkobi, Frederick Lindzey and R Scott Gamo

    Diurnal and nocturnal habitat use by reintroduced elk in eastern Kentucky,United States ....................................................................................................................................................................................p19Elizabeth G Springborn and David S Meahr

    Animal movement and habitat use estimates for moose Alces alces from GPS tracking and satellite images ..............................................................................................................................................p21Holger Dettki and Lars Edenius

    GPS tracking and spatial data as a method for studying the use of pastureby reindeer ..........................................................................................................................................................................................p23Jouko Kumpala, Alfred Colpaert and Ulrich Fielitz

    The first tracking results from a female free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus L.)fitted with GPS collar in Ardenne, Belgium ........................................................................................................p25Alain M Licoppe and Julien Lievens

    Performance of store-on-board GPS collars on elk, mule deer and mountain lions in Wyoming, USA ..........................................................................................................................................................................p29Frederick Lindzey, Hall Sawyer, Charles Anderson and Brad Banulis

    GPS collars with remote download facilities, for studying the economics of moosehunting and moose-wolf interactions ........................................................................................................................p33Barbara Zimmermann, Torstein Storaas, Petter Wabakken, Knut Nicolaysen, Ole Knut Steinset, Micheal Dtterer, HegeGundersen and Harry Petter Andreassen

    Using GPS to study the effect of human disturbance on the behaviour of red deerstags on a highland estate in Scotland ......................................................................................................................p39Angela M Sibbald, Russell J Hooper, Iain J Gordon and Stewart Cumming

    A GPS-assisted approach to measuring fine-scale foraging patterns of small mammals ..............................................................................................................................................................................................p45A D Kliskey and A E Byrom

    i

  • GPS PRACTICALITY AND PROGRESS

    GPS and its use in animal telemetry:The next five years ......................................................................p51Ian A R Hulbert

    Evaluation of GPS technology for tracking mountain ungulates:VHF transmitters or GPS collars? ................................................................................................................................................................................p61Ruedi Haller, Flurin Filli and Stephan Imfeld

    Establishing GPS technology in the ungulate research project in the Swiss National Park - first results ................................................................................................................................................p67

    Ruedi Haller and Flurin Filli

    GPS performance in a temperate forest environment ............................................................................p69Georges Janeau, Christophe Adrados, Jean Joachim and Dominique Ppin

    Is it still necessary to use GPS in differential mode since the elimination of Selective Availability? ................................................................................................................................................................p73Georges Janeau, Christophe Adrados and Irne Girard

    Measuring diet composition and food intake by moose in the Swedish boreal forest: integrating GPS and faecal marker technologies ..........................................................................p77Robert W Mayes, Glenn Iason, Neil White and Thomas Palo

    Analysis and application of fine scale movement data ..............................................................................p81Patrick A Zollner

    HRE:The home range extension for ArcviewTM ................................................................................................p83Arthur P Rodgers and Angus P Carr

    Virtual fencing - a prescription range animal management tool for the ................................p8521st centuryDean M Anderson

    A very lightweight flight recorder for homing pigeons based on GPS ......................................p95Karen von Hnerbein and Eckhard Rter

    High performance GPS collars, use of the latest available technology ......................................p97Robert Schulte and Ulrich Feilitz

    GPS solutions from Lotek Wireless - a new approach to wildlife research ........................p103

    Discover the full power of GPS with Televilt GPS collars ....................................................................p107

    List of delegate names and addresses ....................................................................................................................p111

    ii

  • FOREWORD

    Understanding the factors determining the distribution and movements of animals around the landscape is a majorobjective for scientists, conservationists and natural resource managers alike. It is only through developing thisknowledge that animal populations will be managed to meet conservation, sporting or natural heritage objectives.Scientists have long battled with the logistics of gathering information on the movement and distribution ofindividuals and populations, often relying on tedious visual observation or VHF technology to gather data. Havingspent some time tracking Chilean huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), an endangered deer native to the Andes of Chile,using conventional VHF radio tracking, I can vouch for the limitations of the data, from e.g. disturbing the animaland only being able to track during the day because of the difficulty of the terrain. The advent of the developmentof Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology has offered the opportunity to overcome a number of theselimitations. However, whilst there has been a growing interest in the use of GPS amongst biologists, there has onlybeen limited uptake to date. In part this reflects the expense of the units and the weight of the battery supply which,until recently, has prohibited the use of collars except for large animals. However, it also reflects the lack ofinformation available to biologists as to what equipment is available and the experiences of others in its use.

    We, at the Macaulay Institute, are interested in the ecological determinants of habitat use by wild and domesticspecies, in order to predict the economic and environmental consequences of adopting different animal managementstrategies. In the mid-1990s we took the decision to invest in GPS collars to help with a project to measure the impactof visitor access on the movement patterns of red deer in the Highlands of Scotland. Having deployed the collars, weran into a number of teething problems which, we now know, other researchers were also experiencing. We felt veryisolated at the time and from that isolation grew the incentive to establish a network of GPS users who could shareexperience and information about the latest developments etc. The conference on Tracking Animals with GPS, heldat The Macaulay Institute in Aberdeen, Scotland, on the 12th and 13th of March 2001, was one of our contributionsto the development of that network and the flow of information. In the workshop we wished not only to hear whatbiologists have been doing with GPS, but also to hear what they wanted from the technology in the future. Weinvited a few of the major manufacturers of GPS collars for wildlife tracking to attend the conference so that theycould hear first hand what biologists want from the technology and also to tell the researchers what technology is indevelopment.

    The conference was extremely well attended and offered a forum of lively debate, which should continue on the GPSForum e-mail: gps@mluri.sari.ac.uk. Hopefully, this conference will not be a one off, but will be the first in a series.I expect that in future workshops we will see a move away from discussions on the limitations of the technologytowards discussions of the academic and practical value of the information produced by GPS technology.

    Iain J Gordon 10 July 2001

    iii

  • TRACKING ANIMALS WITH GPS:THE FIRST 10 YEARS

    Arthur R. Rodgers

    Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Centre for N