the organisation of the european intermodal road/rail freight

Download The Organisation of the European Intermodal Road/Rail Freight

Post on 18-Jan-2017

213 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • The Organisation of the European Intermodal Road/Rail Freight Transport Industry International congress on Freight Transport Automation and Multi-modality, Delft, 23 & 24 May 2002 Authors Johan Woxenius*, Ph.D., and Fredrik Brthel, M.Sc. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Transportation and Logistics SE-412 96 Gteborg, Sweden, Tel.: +46-31-772 1339, E-mail: jwox@mot.chalmers.se

  • Contents

    Abstract

    1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 2 1.1 Background .................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Objectives and scientific contribution............................................................ 2 1.3 Methods.......................................................................................................... 2 1.4 Scope.............................................................................................................. 3 2 The European intermodal transport industry .......................................... 4 2.1 History and overview..................................................................................... 4 2.2 Shippers.......................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Forwarders ..................................................................................................... 5 2.4 Hauliers .......................................................................................................... 7 2.5 Intermodal operators ...................................................................................... 7 2.5.1 ICF ................................................................................................................. 7

    2.5.2 The UIRR....................................................................................................... 8

    2.5.3 National Container Companies .................................................................... 10

    2.5.4 New entrants ................................................................................................ 11

    2.6 Terminal companies..................................................................................... 13 2.7 Rail operators ............................................................................................... 15 2.8 Equipment leasing companies...................................................................... 15 3 The Swedish intermodal operators........................................................... 17 3.1 Green Cargo ................................................................................................. 17 3.1.1 Light-combi.................................................................................................. 17

    3.1.2 Green Cargo Recycling and Green Cargo Distribution ............................... 17

    3.1.3 Green Cargo Intermodal Shuttles................................................................. 18

    3.1.4 TGOJ Trafik................................................................................................. 18

    3.2 Rail Combi/Cargo Net A/S .......................................................................... 18 3.3 Swe-kombi ................................................................................................... 19 3.4 Intercontainer (Scandinavia) AB ................................................................. 20 3.5 The Gothia Rail Shuttle................................................................................ 20 3.6 BK TG....................................................................................................... 20 3.7 IKEA RAIL.................................................................................................. 21 4 Analysis and conclusions ........................................................................... 21 4.1 The Swedish industrial organisation ............................................................ 22 4.2 The European industrial organisation .......................................................... 23 References ..................................................................................................................... 26

  • The Organisation of the European Intermodal Road/Rail Freight Transport Industry 1

    Abstract

    Intermodal road/rail freight transport is by many regarded as the universal solution to a wide range of problems related to road freight transport as well as to the financial problems of national railways. The high expectations, in particular from the political actors, have not been fully fulfilled although the industry has shown substantial growth over a number of years. The reasons for the somewhat disappointing devel-opment is by many considered to be related to the industrial organisation. Still, a lack of contemporary analysis of the industrial organisation of intermodal freight transport is identified.

    This article attempts to add to the knowledge of how intermodal transport chains are organised in the era of deregulation that at least applies in parts of Europe. Special effort is spend on an attempt to identify actor categories and principles for how they cooperate in the production and marketing of intermodal transport services.

    An overview for Europe is presented together with a more detailed description of the situation in Sweden that has a history of deregulation since 1988 when the infrastruc-ture management was broken out of Swedish State Railways. The ambition is to show the basic structure of the intermodal transport industry rather than extensively de-scribe every detail. The European overview covers door-to-door transport while the Swedish one covers the core of intermodal transport: terminal-to-terminal.

    On the European level, national container companies offer door-to-door services and, together with shipping agencies and forwarders, they control the very important con-tacts with the shippers. The ICF and the UIRR companies take a wholesaler role, al-though ICF occasionally sell directly to large shippers. In international transport, the forwarders decide whether intermodal transport should be used but the hauliers take a stronger role in domestic transport since they are then often contracted for a long dis-tance haul and can in turn outsource to an intermodal operator. Shippers rarely spe-cifically demand a special transportation mode.

    In all, it is obvious that changes due to deregulation take place in the European inter-modal road/rail freight industry. Some cherry-pickers have entered, some of them have left, while others maintain and develop their place in the market. Above all, however, the large players change strategies, enter new markets or form alliances which give much faster and more dramatic changes as well as a more scattered picture than in the monopoly days.

    In general, the new intermodal operators are found in the northern part of Europe and in particular in the large market for hinterland transport of maritime containers. Hence, most of them can be related to the large ports in Hamburg, Bremerhaven, Rot-terdam and to some extent Antwerp. A clearer actor role concerning rail traction is also distinguishable with many small rail companies, often with a short-line origin.

    In Sweden, the biggest change is that Green Cargo (former freight division of Swed-ish State Railways) has merged its subsidiary for intermodal transport, Rail Combi, with NSB Freight (now CargoNet A/S), that some private railways have started shut-tles for maritime containers to Gteborg and that the furnishing company IKEA has started an own railway company controlling slots and coordinating traffic, however with outsourced physical movement.

  • 2 FTAM Conference, TRAIL Research School, Delft, May 2002

    1 Introduction

    1.1 Background Intermodal road/rail freight transport is by many regarded as the universal solution to a wide range of problems related to road freight transport as well as to the financial problems of national railways. The high expectations, in particular from the political actors, have not been fully fulfilled although the industry has shown substantial growth over a number of years. The reasons for the somewhat disappointing devel-opment is by many considered to be related to the industrial organisation.

    Researchers and consultants have directed much attention towards the quantitative and qualitative as well as real and potential demand for intermodal transport in Europe. Less effort has been spend on analysing the supply side of intermodal trans-port, although a number of studies have been published (e.g., Bukold, 1993/a, 1993/b and 1996; Cooper et al., 1991; Stone, 1998 and Woxenius, 1994). These studies are some years old now and substantial changes in the marketplace have resulted in a lack of contemporary analysis. This article attempts to add to the knowledge of how inter-modal transport chains are organised in Europe.

    1.2 Objectives and scientific contribution A part of an ongoing research project on intermodal freight transport1 is dedicated to possibilities for the rail traffic mode to offer spatially dispersed services. The overall aim of the article is to build a base for such continued research. The empirical purpose of the article is to describe and analyse the characteristics of the European intermodal transport industry. The leading empirical research questions are:

    Which categories of companies take part in the production of intermodal road/rail freight transport services?

    Which are the main European actors? How and by which actor categories are these services packaged and offered to the

    European shippers? The scientific contribution is believed

Recommended

View more >