the lakes handbook: lake restoration and rehabilitation

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  • The Lakes HandbookVOLUME 2

    L AKE RESTOR ATION AND REHABILITATION

    EDITED BY

    P.E. OSullivan

    AND

    C.S. Reynolds

  • THE LAKES HANDBOOKVolume 2

  • Also available from Blackwell Publishing:

    The Lakes HandbookVolume 1 Limnology and Limnetic EcologyEdited by P.E. OSullivan & C.S. Reynolds

  • The Lakes HandbookVOLUME 2

    L AKE RESTOR ATION AND REHABILITATION

    EDITED BY

    P.E. OSullivan

    AND

    C.S. Reynolds

  • 2005 by Blackwell Science Ltda Blackwell Publishing company

    BLACKWELL PUBLISHING350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA

    108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia

    The rights of P.E. OSullivan and C.S. Reynolds to be identified as the Authors of theEditorial Material in this Work have been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright,

    Designs, and Patents Act 1988.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

    photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs,and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

    First published 2005 by Blackwell Science Ltd

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    The lakes handbook / edited by P.E. OSullivan and C.S. Reynolds.p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-632-04795-X (hardback, v.1 : alk. paper)

    1. Limnology. 2. Lake ecology. I. OSullivan, P.E. (Patrick E.) II. Reynolds, Colin S.QH96.L29 2003551.482 dc21

    2003000139

    A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.

    Set in 9 on 11.5 pt Trump Mediaevalby SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong KongPrinted and bound in the United Kingdom

    by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall

    The publishers policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainableforestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free andelementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper

    and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards.

    For further information onBlackwell Publishing, visit our website:

    www.blackwellpublishing.com

  • Contents

    List of Contributors, vii

    Part I General Issues1 ON THE VALUE OF LAKES, 3

    Patrick OSullivan

    2 THE ASSAULT ON THE QUALITY AND VALUE OF LAKES, 25

    Wilhelm Ripl and Klaus-Dieter Wolter

    Part II Regional Studies3 THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES: A LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES FOCUS, 65

    Marlene S. Evans

    4 LAKE WASHINGTON, 96

    W.T. Edmondson

    5 LAKES OF NORTHERN EUROPE, 117

    Heikki Simola and Lauri Arvola

    6 EUROPEAN ALPINE LAKES, 159

    Martin T. Dokulil

    7 LAKE BAIKAL AND OTHER GREAT LAKES OF ASIA, 179

    Lyudmila G. Butorina

    8 LAKES IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS, 200

    W.D. Williams

    9 FLOODPLAIN LAKES AND RESERVOIRS IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL SOUTHAMERICA: LIMNOLOGY AND HUMAN IMPACTS, 241

    John M. Melack

    Part III Human Impact on Specific Lake Types10 EUTROPHICATION OF SHALLOW TEMPERATE LAKES, 261

    G.L. Phillips

  • vi contents

    11 EUTROPHICATION OF SHALLOW TROPICAL LAKES, 279

    Patrick L. Osborne

    12 RESERVOIRS AND OTHER ARTIFICIAL WATER BODIES, 300

    Milan Straskraba

    Part IV Lake and Catchment Models13 THE EXPORT COEFFICIENT APPROACH TO PREDICTION OF NUTRIENT LOADINGS:

    ERRORS AND UNCERTAINTIES IN THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE, 331

    Helen M. Wilson

    14 THE PHOSPHORUS LOADING CONCEPT AND THE OECD EUTROPHICATIONPROGRAMME: ORIGIN, APPLICATION AND CAPABILITIES, 354

    Walter Rast and Jeffrey A. Thornton

    15 MODELS OF LAKES AND RESERVOIRS, 386

    Sven-Erik Jrgensen

    16 THE ASSESSMENT, MANAGEMENT AND REVERSAL OF EUTROPHICATION, 438

    Helmut Klapper

    17 BIOMANIPULATION IN SHALLOW LAKES: CONCEPTS, CASE STUDIES AND PERSPECTIVES, 462

    S. Harry Hosper, Marie-Louise Meijer, R.D. Gulati and Ellen van Donk

    18 RESTORING ACIDIFIED LAKES: AN OVERVIEW, 483

    Lennart Henrikson, Atle Hindar and Ingemar Abrahamsson

    Part V Legal Frameworks19 THE FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING LAKES IN THE USA, 501

    Thomas Davenport

    20 NORDIC LAKES WATER LEGISLATION WITH RESPECT TO LAKES IN FINLAND ANDSWEDEN, 511

    Marianne Lindstrm

    21 THE PROBLEM OF REHABILITATING LAKES AND WETLANDS IN DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES: THE CASE EXAMPLE OF EAST AFRICA, 523

    F.W.B. Bugenyi

    22 SOUTH AFRICA TOWARDS PROTECTING OUR LAKES, 534

    G.I. Cowan

    Index, 543

  • Contributors

    Lennart Henrikson WWF Sweden, Fresh-water Programme, Ulriksdals Slott, SE-170 81Solna, Sweden

    Atle Hindar Norwegian Institute for Water Re-search, Regional Office South, Televeien 3, N-4879 Grimstad, Norway

    S. Harry Hosper Institute for Inland Water Management and Wastewater Treatment(RIZA), PO Box 17, 8200 AA, Lelystad, TheNetherlands

    Sven-Erik Jrgensen The Danish Universityof Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute A, Sectionof Environmental Chemistry, University Park 2,2100 Copenhagen , Denmark

    Helmut Klapper Centre for EnvironmentalResearch, Leipzig-Halle Ltd, Department of In-land Water Research, Brckstrae 3a, D-39114Magdeburg, Germany

    Marianne Lindstrm Finnish EnvironmentInstitute, PO Box 140, 00251 Helsinki, Finland

    Marie-Louise Meijer Waterboard Hunze enAas, P.O. Box 164, 9640 AD Veendam, TheNetherlands

    John M. Melack Bren School of Environ-mental Science and Management, University ofCalifornia, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

    Patrick L. Osborne International Center forTropical Ecology, University of Missouri-St.Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, USA

    Ingemar Abrahamsson Medins Sj- ochbiologi AB, Fretagsvgen 2, 435 33 Mlnlycke,Sweden

    Lauri Arvola Lammi Biological Station, Uni-versity of Helsinki, Fl-16900 Lammi, Finland

    F.W.B. Bugenyi Department of Zoology, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala,Uganda, and Fisheries Research Institute (FIRI),PO Box 343 Jinja, Uganda

    Lyudmila G. Butorina Institute for Biology ofInland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences,Borok, Nekouz District, Yaroslavl Region 152742,Russia

    G.I. Cowan Department of Environmental Af-fairs and Tourism, Private Bag X447, Pretoria0001, South Africa

    Thomas Davenport EPA Region 5, WW16-J,77 W Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604, USA

    Martin T. Dokulil Institute of Limnology,Austrian Academy of Sciences, Mondseestrasse 9,A-5310 Mondsee, Austria

    W.T. Edmondson late of Department of Zoolo-gy, University of Washington, NJ-15, Seattle,Washington 981965, USA

    Marlene S. Evans National Water ResearchInstitute, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Sakatoon,Saskatchewan S7N 3H5, Canada

    Ramesh D. Gulati Netherlands Institute ofEcology Centre for Limnology, Rijksstraatweg6, 3631 AC Nieuwersluis, The Netherlands

  • viii contributors

    Patrick OSullivan School of Earth, Oceanand Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 4AA, UK

    G.L. Phillips Centre for Risk and Forecasting,Environment Agency, Kings Meadow House,Reading RG1 8DQ, UK

    Walter Rast Aquatic Station, Department ofBiology, Texas State University, 601 UniversityDrive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA

    Wilhelm Ripl Technische Universitt Berlin,Fachgebiet Limnologie, Hellriegelstrasse 6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany

    Heikki Simola Karelian Institute, Universityof Joensuu, PO Box 111, Fl-80101 Joensuu, Finland

    Milan Straskraba late of The Academy ofSciences of the Czech Republic and the University

    of South Bohemia, Cesk Budejovice, Czech Republic.

    Jeffrey A. Thornton Southeastern WisconsinRegional Planning Commission, PO Box 1607,Waukesha, Wisconsin 53187, USA

    Ellen Van Donk Netherlands Institute of Ecology Centre for Limnology, Rijksstraatweg 6, 3631 AC Nieuwersluis, The Netherlands

    W.D. Williams late of Department of Environ-mental Biology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide,SA 5005, Australia

    Helen M. Wilson School of Earth, Ocean andEnvironmental Sciences, University of Plymouth,Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 4AA, UK

    Klaus-Dieter Wolter Technische UniversittBerlin, Fachgebiet Limnologie, Department ofLimnology, Hellriegelstrasse 6, D-14195 Berlin,Germany

  • Part I General Issues

  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION

    In Volume 1 of this book, we examined:1 lake physical and chemical processes (the natureand origin of lakes themselves, the relationship be-tween lakes and their surrounding water table andwith their catchments, lake hydrodynamics andsedimentation);2 limnetic ecology (the nature and role of themajor classes of organisms found in freshwaterlakes phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroben-thos, pelagic microbes and fish as well as wholelake communities).In this volume, we discuss the general impact ofhuman societies upon lakes, as well as that experi-enced by lakes of selected parts of the Earth North America (and Lake Washington inparticular), the Nordic and Alpine regions of Europe, Lake Baikal (by volume by far the worldslargest lake), the arid zone in general, and LatinAmerica. We then go on to examine the problemscreated by human use of various different kinds oflake shallow bodies of both the temperate zoneand the tropics, reservoirs and other artificial bodies.

    The volume then continues with an examina-tion of measures developed over the past 30 yearsin order to combat eutrophication (the most wide-spread environmental problem created by humanimpact on lakes, on a catchment scale), especiallythe use of catchment models to predict nutrientloadings from the land upon lakes, and of steadystate and dynamic models better to unders

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