the conceptual metaphor theory basic concepts and assumptions

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The conceptual metaphor theory Basic concepts and assumptions Slide 2 By the use of metaphors the ability to understand and to express in language the experience of the world unbelievably increases.. Slide 3 It allows people to go beyond the immediate experience and to extend the language in an unlimited way.. Slide 4 Conceptual metaphor Understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. Slide 5 Conceptual metaphor Understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. A conceptual domain - any coherent organisation of experience. LIFE; LOVE; BEING SAD; LIGHT; ECONOMY; WAR, etc. Slide 6 Conceptual metaphor Is that the foundation for your theory? The theory needs more support. We need to construct a strong argument for that. The theory will stand or fall on the strength of that argument. Slide 7 Conceptual metaphor Is that the foundation for your theory? The theory needs more support. We need to construct a strong argument for that. The theory will stand or fall on the strength of that argument. THEORIES ARE BUILDINGS Slide 8 Conceptual metaphor Is that the foundation for your theory? The theory needs more support. We need to construct a strong argument for that. The theory will stand or fall on the strength of that argument. THEORIES ARE BUILDINGS CONCEPTUAL DOMAIN (A) IS CONCEPTUAL DOMAIN (B) Slide 9 Correspondences between domains SOURCE DOMAIN (BUILDING)TARGET DOMAIN (THEORY) the foundation of a buildingthe basis of the theory supportevidence strengthplausibility constructioncreation collapse of a buildingfall of a theory Slide 10 mappings There is a set of systematic correspondences or mappings between the source and the target. It means that constituent conceptual elements of the source correspond to constituent elements of the target. Slide 11 ARGUMENT IS WAR Your claims are indefensible. He attacked every weak point in my argument. His criticisms were right on target. Ive never won an argument with him. If you use that strategy, hell wipe you out. Slide 12 TIME IS MONEY Youre wasting my time. This gadget will save you hours. How do you spend your time these days? That flat tire cost me an hour. You dont use your time profitably. Slide 13 LIFE IS A JOURNEY Hes without direction in life. Im at a crossroads in my life. Shes gone through a lot in life. Hes gone (= died). Slide 14 metaphor vs. metaphorical linguistic expression metaphormetaphorical linguistic expression THEORIES ARE BUILDINGSIs that the foundation for your theory? ARGUMENT IS WARYour claims are indefensible. TIME IS MONEYYoure wasting my time. LIFE IS A JOURNEYHes without direction in life. Slide 15 Common source domains the human body (the heart of the problem) health and illness (a healthy society, she hurt my feelings) animals (a cow, a bitch) plants (the fruits of her labour, exports flourished) buildings and construction (he's in ruins financially) machines and tools (conceptual tools, she produces a book) games and sport (to toy with the idea) money and economic transactions (spending time, investing in a relationship) cooking and food (to cook up a story, a recipe for success) heat and cold (a cold reception, icy stare) light and darkness (a dark mood, a cloud of suspicion) forces (he's driving me nuts) movement and direction (he went crazy, inflation is soaring) Slide 16 Common target domains emotion desire morality thought society/nation politics economy human relationships communication time life and death religion events and actions Slide 17 Classification of metaphors conceptual metaphors are classified according to: conventionality cognitive function Slide 18 Classification according to conventionality Conventional conceptual metaphors - well- entrenched ways of thinking about or understanding an abstract domain (often expressed by conventional linguistic expressions). Slide 19 Classification according to conventionality Unconventional conceptual metaphors unconventional linguistic expression unconventional source-target connection Slide 20 The cognitive function of metaphors Ontological metaphors Structural metaphors Orientational metaphors Slide 21 The cognitive function of metaphors Ontological metaphors They give ontological status to abstract or vague concepts (i.e. we think and talk of them as if they were THINGS). They allow us to refer to, quantify, to identify more diffuse aspects of our experience. Slide 22 The cognitive function of metaphors Ontological metaphors examples Give me a call. (an event is a physical object) my mind (a possessed physical object) in love (an emotional state is a container) Life has cheated me. (life is a person; personification) Ontological metaphors can be elaborated into structural metaphors. Slide 23 The cognitive function of metaphors Structural metaphors Their cognitive function is to enable to understand the target by means of the structure of the source (by means of conceptual mappings). The source domain provides a relatively rich knowledge for the target concept. Slide 24 The cognitive function of metaphors Orientational metaphors Their cognitive function is to make a set of target concepts coherent in our conceptual system. They are based on human spatial orientations (e.g. up-down, centre-periphery, etc.) Slide 25 The cognitive function of metaphors Orientational metaphors MORE IS UP: Speak up, please. SICK IS DOWN: He fell ill. CONTROL IS UP: He is under my control. RATIONAL IS UP: The discussion fell to an emotional level. Slide 26 Practice Identify source and target domains. Label the metaphor. 1.His ego is very fragile. 2.Inflation has robbed me of my savings. 3.Hes rich in ideas. 4.She has a fertile imagination. 5.Life is empty for him. 6.My fear of insects is driving her crazy. Slide 27 1.His ego is very fragile. THE MIND IS A BRITTLE OBJECT 1.Inflation has robbed me of my savings. INFLATION IS A PERSON 2.Hes rich in ideas. IDEAS ARE MONEY 1.She has a fertile imagination. IDEAS ARE PLANTS 1.Life is empty for him. LIFE IS A CONTAINER 2.My fear of insects is driving her crazy. FEAR IS AN OBJECT. FEAR IS A FORCE. Slide 28 The partial nature of metaphorical mappings which parts of the source are mapped onto which parts in the target When a metaphor focuses on one or some aspects of a target concept, then it highlights that concept (those concepts). The other aspects of the concept remain hidden (out of focus). Slide 29 The partial nature of metaphorical mappings e.g. in the metaphor ARGUMENT IS A BUILDING we do not utilise many elements of the source such as doors, windows, living in, etc. Slide 30 The partial nature of metaphorical mappings Several metaphors are used to structure the concept of argument: container metaphor highlights the content war control over the argument journey progress, content building construction, strength Slide 31 Exercise What aspects of the source and target domains are utilised and highlighted in the metaphors of love below: LOVE IS A JOURNEY Its been a long bumpy road. Look how far weve come. LOVE IS A NUTRIENT Im starved for love. LOVE IS A FIRE He is burning with love LOVE IS MAGIC Im under her spell. Slide 32 Exercise What aspects of the source and target domains are utilised and highlighted in the metaphors of love below: LOVE IS A JOURNEY Its been a long bumpy road.(progress) Look how far weve come. LOVE IS A NUTRIENT Im starved for love. LOVE IS A FIRE He is burning with love LOVE IS MAGIC Im under her spell. Slide 33 Exercise What aspects of the source and target domains are utilised and highlighted in the metaphors of love below: LOVE IS A JOURNEY Its been a long bumpy road.(progress) Look how far weve come. LOVE IS A NUTRIENT Im starved for love.(desire) LOVE IS A FIRE He is burning with love LOVE IS MAGIC Im under her spell. Slide 34 Exercise What aspects of the source and target domains are utilised and highlighted in the metaphors of love below: LOVE IS A JOURNEY Its been a long bumpy road.(progress) Look how far weve come. LOVE IS A NUTRIENT Im starved for love.(desire) LOVE IS A FIRE He is burning with love(intensity) LOVE IS MAGIC Im under her spell. Slide 35 Exercise What aspects of the source and target domains are utilised and highlighted in the metaphors of love below: LOVE IS A JOURNEY Its been a long bumpy road.(progress) Look how far weve come. LOVE IS A NUTRIENT Im starved for love.(desire) LOVE IS A FIRE He is burning with love(intensity) LOVE IS MAGIC Im under her spell.(loss of control) Slide 36 The concept of sadness: an analysis Identify the conceptual metaphors manifested by these examples. Which aspects of sadness are highlighted and which aspects are hidden? Waves of depression came over him. He brought me down with his remarks. He is in a dark mood. I am filled with sorrow. That was a terrible blow. Tim heals all sorrows. He was insane with grief. He drowned his sorrow in drink. His feelings of misery got out of hand. She was ruled by sorrow. Slide 37 Waves of depression came over him. SADNESS IN A NATURAL FORCE Highlighted: passivity, lack of control Hidden: cause, attempt at control, behavioural responses (?) Slide 38 He brought me down with his remarks. SAD IS DOWN Highlighted: negative character Hidden: cause, attempt at control Slide 39 He is in a dark mood. SAD IS DARK Highlighted: negative character Hidden: cause, attempt t control Slide 40 I am filled with sorrow. SADNESS IS A FLUID IN A CONTAINER Highlighted: intensity, attempt at control, loss of control Hidden: negative character Slide 41 That was a terrible blow. SADNESS IS A PHYSICAL FORCE Highlighted: passivity, sudden impact Hidden: cause, attempt at control, behavioral responses Slide 42 Tim heals all sorrows. SADNESS IS A DISEASE Highlighted: negative character, passivity, behavioral responses Hidden: attempt at control Slide 43 He was insane with grief. SADNESS IS INSANITY Highlighted: lack of control Hidden: attem

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