synthetic and biological polymers

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Synthetic and Biological Polymers. Polymers: Macromolecules formed by the covalent attachment of a set of small molecules termed monomers. Polymers are classified as: (1)Man-made or synthetic polymers that are synthesized in the laboratory; (2)Biological polymer that are found in nature. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1Synthetic and Biological PolymersPolymers: Macromolecules formed by the covalent attachment of a set of small molecules termed monomers.Polymers are classified as:(1)Man-made or synthetic polymers that are synthesized in the laboratory;(2)Biological polymer that are found in nature.Synthetic polymers: nylon, poly-ethylene, poly-styreneBiological polymers: DNA, proteins, carbohydrates12Methods for making polymersAddition polymerization and condensation polymerizationAddition polymerization: monomers react to form a polymer without net loss of atoms.Most common form: free radical chain reaction of ethylenesn monomersone polymer molecule

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Example of addition polymers3200 C2000 atmO2peroxidespolyethyleneH2CCH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2Free-Radical AdditionPolymerization of Ethylene46polypropyleneH2CCHCH3CH2CHCHCH2CH2CHCH3CH3CH3Free-Radical Polymerization of Propene56..RO..H2CCHCH3Mechanism

67H2CCHCH3 ..RO:Mechanism79H2CCHCH3..RO:Mechanism

CHCH3H2C810H2CCHCH3H2CCHCH3 ..RO:Mechanism910H2CCHCH3H2CCHCH3 ..RO:Mechanism

CHCH3H2C1010H2CCHCH3H2CCHCH3 H2CCHCH3..RO:Mechanism1110H2CCHCH3H2CCHCH3 H2CCHCH3..RO:Mechanism

CHCH3H2C1210Likewise...H2C=CHCl polyvinyl chloride

H2C=CHC6H5 polystyrene

F2C=CF2 Teflon131914

Important constitutions for synthetic polymers1415

Supramolecular structure of polymers

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Structural properties of linear polymers: conformational flexibility and strength1617

Cross linking adds tensile strength1718Condensation polymerizationCondensation polymerization: the polymer grows from monomers by splitting off a small molecule such as water or carbon dioxide.Example: formation of amide links and loss of water

MonomersFirst unit of polymer + H2O1819

SupramolecularStructure of nylonIntermolecular hydrogen bonds give nylon enormous tensile strengthHydrogen bonds between chains1920BiopolymersNucleic acid polymers (DNA, RNA)Amino acids polymers (Proteins)Sugar polymers (Carbohydrates)Genetic information for the cell: DNAStructural strength and catalysis: ProteinsEnergy source: Carbohydrates20Carbohydrates

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22Proteins: amino acid monomersThe difference between amino acids is the R group

The basic structure of an amino acid monomer23424

2425Proteins: condensation polymersFormed by condensation polymerization of amino acidsMonomers: 20 essential amino acids

Glycine (R = H) + GlycineFirst step toward poly(glycine)

General structure of an amino acidR is the only variable group2526

Representation of the constitution of a protein2627

Three D representation of the structure of a protein27DNA28429

The monomers:Adenine (A)Thymine (T)Guanine (G)Cytosine (C)Phosphate-Sugar (backbone) ofDNA2930

Phosphate-sugar backbone holds the DNA macromolecule together3031

One strand unwinds to duplicate its complement via a polymerization of the monomers C, G, A and T31

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