technology of synthetic resins & emulsion polymers


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The book TECHNOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC RESINS AND EMULSION POLYMERS written by Dr. Himadri panda and published by Engineers India Research Institute (EIRI, Delhi) covers The Chemistry of Resin, Formation and Resin, Properties, The Chemical Engineering of Oil and Resin Processing, Alkyd Resins, Polyesters, Amino Resins, Polyurethane Resins, Epoxy Resins, Water Dispersible, Epoxy Resins, Silicone Resins, Acrylic Solution Resins, Rubber Resins, Emulsion Polymers, Water Reducible Resins, Water Soluble Polymers etc.




Dr. Himadri Panda, Ph.D.,F.I.C.,F.I.C.S.Industrial Consultant Fellow of the Essential Association of India, Fellow of the Indian Pulp & Paper Technical Association of India, Fellow of the Indian National Science Congress, Fellow of the Oil & Colour Chemist's Association, U.K. Member of Chinese Academy of Forests, Former Chemist, I.T.R. Co. Ltd. Bareilly, (U.P.), Former Cheif Chemist (Q.C. & R & D) Tarpina Pvt. Ltd., Ramnagar, Uttranchal

4449, Nai Sarak, Main Road, Delhi-110 006 (India) Ph. : 91-11-23918117, 23916431, 45120361, 45626431 Fax : 91-11-23916431, 23918117 E-Mail : Website : eiribooksandprojectreports.comSole Distributor : EIRI PROJECT CONSULTANTS & PUBLISHERS 4/54, Roop Nagar, Delhi-110007

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4449, Nai Sarak, Main Road, Delhi-110 006 (India) Ph. : 91-11-23918117, 23916431, 45120361, 45626431 Fax : 91-11-23916431, 23918117 E-Mail : Website :

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Copy Reserved by Sudhir Gupta, Delhi

ISBN : 978-81-89765-96-5Printed in New Delhi (India)

The book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way or trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior written consent, in any form of binding or cover other than in which it is published/compiled and without a similar consent including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser and without limiting the rights under copy rights reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored inor introduced into a retrieval system, of transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise), without the written prior permission of both the copyright owner and above mentioned publisher of this book. While the book has been prepared carefully, yet the publisher's printer and compiler do not hold any responsibility on the subject of the book. All disputes regarding this book are Subject to Delhi Jurisdiction only

Printed and Published by Sudhir Gupta for "Engineers India Research Institute", 4449, Nai Sarak, Main Road, New Delhi-110 006 and Printed at Swastik Offset, Delhi

PrefacePaint and colour are as old as man himself. Over 35 000 years ago, in seeking refuge from the weather and marauding beasts, man lived in caves. With the aid of naturally occurring materials, such as clays and chalks, and using animal fats as binders, he decorated his cave walls with drawings of animals and his fellow man. The Egyptians in about 2500 BC were still using the same pigments except that a clear blue had been added to relieve the earth colours. This blue is thought to have been derived by finely powdering azurite, a semiprecious stone, while the animal fat medium had given way to gums, wax, size, and perhaps albumen. Painters still recorded in tombs and temples, the happenings of the day, the battles, the pharaohs eye, the priestly rites. In the first millennium BC the Greeks come into sharp focus as they pursue the art of painting, not only in their own country, but abroad in Rome. The Greeks developed a new technique, that of mixing colours not with water but with hot wax. This made a thicker, creamier type of paint which allowed the artist to model his forms by blending light and dark shades of colour. By now considerable advances had been made with various new pigments and nearly every colour was obtainable - green chalk came from Smyrna , orpiment and red lead from Pontus , whilst vermilion was obtainable from the Ephesians. A purple pigment was made by heating yellow earth to redness and then plunging it into vinegar. Another purple was also produced from the murex, a species of sea mussel, and for tint changing, madder root was used. After the Roman world had been over run by the Barbarians in the fifth century AD, many art techniques were lost. But with the slow revival of commerce, properity and the peaceful arts in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries came a growing interest in colourful decoration. The Church was the hub, which accounts for the magnificent religious paintings made over this period. The Renaissance swept Europe like a fire. Men came out of their fortified towns and interchange of thought and culture was eagerly sought. Journeyman artist painters traveled Europe with their own secret paint recipes. By the eighteenth century paint factories were operating in Europe and later in America. By the early nineteenth century, artisan painters were

working extensively, as people fully realized the big part that architectural paint plays in decorating and protecting property. Paint crept into common and daily use throughout most of the Western world. House painting, hitherto a luxury longer recognized as a mark of social distinction. Paint, once a costly product of hand labour by master craftsmen who prepared and mixed their own raw materials from secret formulae handed down from generation to generation, was now reachin the mass proction stage. The twentieth century witnessed the birth of the paint industry as a specialized branch of the chemical industry and saw the transformation of paintmaking from an art to a science. The availability of raw materials increased from a few - such as linseed oil, turpentine, white lead, mineral earth and inorganic colours - to a vast range of complex organic chemicals, the use of which required technical specialists. The first production of paint in India is claimed to date from about the 1910s but it was the First World War, through its inevitable shortages and restrictions on imports, which really prompted the establishment of local manufacturing. Today the Indian paint industry comprises some 200 plants, the majority of which are located in Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata, adjacent to the main centres of population and industry. The industry has an annual turnover of bout Rs 500 crore and employs approximately 10,000 people, of which about 20 per cent have some form of technical qualification. The industry plays an important role in the Indian economy, for every industry uses paints and coatings in one form or another. About half the industrys production takes the form of the more familiar architectural and decorative paints used to protect and beautify our homes, offices, industrial buildings and the like. In the architectural and decorative paint market over the past few years, whilst the production of solvent thinned paints has decreased, there has been a marked increase in the production of water based and latex paints. The other half of the industrys output is supplied as industrial coatings, which are formulated to meet special conditions encountered in numerous industrial and special end-uses. These include the protection and finishing of motor vehicles of all types, agricultural equipment , ships and aircraft, a wide variety of manufactured consumer durable products (including refrigerators, washing machines, furniture), technical equipment, toys and containers of numerous types. Specialized coatings provide specifically designed properties for electrical installations, lining of food and beverage

containers, fire retardency, chemical resistance and a multitude of other properties. The development of the surface coating industry, particularly over the last thirty or so years, has been no less rapid than that in engineering, science and electronics which have been more obvious and spectacular. The technological advances have been such that paint manufacturing, which was regarded as an arts and crafts industry has now virtually becomes a technical branch of the chemical industry. Whilst paint manufacturers still rely on many natural sources of raw materials, there has been a continuing shift in the direction of purely synthetic materials, which offer important benefits including consistency in quality and supply. During recent years we have experienced a steady increase in the range of new and improved raw materials. These newer products have enabled paint manufacturers to improve the performance properties of their paints and coatings and so satisfy the more stringent requirements of our modern industrial society. Furthermore,it is clear that more extensive demands will be made for improved working conditions, to provide safe and healthy environments within factory locations. In improving occupational health and safety standards, in the long run, emphasis is likely to be placed on the reduction of hazards by requiring changes in workplace design and practice, rather than by the use of personal protection equipment such as maks or respirators. Mandatory product safety management programs will require manufacturers to provide employees and customers with comprehensive information to enable them to handle products in a safe manner, take appropriate precautions, and be aware of actions to be followed in the event of a spillage, accident or unanticipated incident involving a given product. In order to deal with and overcome the various complex, technical problems which will be encountered, the industrys scientific and technological innovative skills will be continually challenged. In responding to these challenges the industry will be involved in inventing, improving and refining products and processes at a rate faster than ever before. However, we can be confident that to satisfy the emerging demands of society, our industry will respond in a positive manner and we will see the development of energy efficient products that are environmentally acceptable and safe. This book, is inte


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