Sustainable Soil Fertility Management: Emerging Issues and Future Challenges

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Potassium nutrition of crop plants. Why to include nonexchangeable potassium in soil testing ? Emerging nutrient deficiencies in rainfed agriculture,Carbon sequestration strategies: Trends from long term manurial trials,Strategies for soil fertility management

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1.Sl. Name of the InstituteName of post FromToNo.Cherukumalli Srinivasa RaoWork Experience1)National Academy of Agricultural Scientist (P)19921993Research and Management,Hyderabad, India2)Indian Institute of Soil Science,Scientist19921998Bhopal, India3)Indian Institute ofSenior Scientist 19982003Pulses Research, Kanpur, India4)Central Research Senior Scientist 20032005Institute for Dryland AgricultureHyderabad, India5)Central Research Principal Scientist2006TillInstitute for Dryland Agriculture dateHyderabad, India6)Director General, International CropsSoil Scientist 2006Jan,Research (On Deputation)January 2009Institute for the Semi Arid(3 Years)Research, Patancheru (CGIAR), India7)Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel One Year Jan 1999Dec (Post Doctoral)19992. Sustainable Soil FertilityManagement: Emerging Issues and Future Challenges Cherukumalli Srinivasa Rao Central Research Institute for DrylandAgriculture, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAtInternational Institute for Tropical Agriculture Ibadan, Nigeria On 30-4-2009 3. Out LinePotassium nutrition of crop plants. Why to includenonexchangeable potassium in soil testing ?Whether nutrient management can breakyieldstagnation in grain legumes.Emerging nutrient deficiencies in rainfed agriculture! Aredryland soils are not only thirsty but also hungry ?Carbon sequestration strategies: Trends from long termmanurial trialsCGIAR ExperiencesStrategies for soil fertility management from Africancontext- Way forward ! 4. I) Potassium nutrition of crop plants. Why to includenonexchangeable potassium in soil testing ?Nutrient uptake in long-term fertilizer experiments under intensive cropping systems in IndiaCropping Soil Yield Nutrient uptake (kg/ha/year) type (t/ha)N PKTotalMaize- Incepti6.8+0.6 240 45 250535wheat- solscowpea(F)Maize- Molliso9.5+1.9 260 65 295620wheat- lscowpea(F)Soybean- Vertisol 6.3 285 44 225554wheatsSoybean- Alfisols 4.2 220 35 170425wheat 5. Fertilizer consumption ratios in IndiaConsu 1960197019801990200120042005mption-61 -71 -81 -91 -02 -05 -06N 1.4 9.0 2143596267P2O50.4 3.3 7 17232427K2O 0.2 1.4 4 7 9 1113Total 2 1432689097107P2O5:K2 0.37: 0.37: 0.33: 0.40: 0.37: 0.39: 0.40:O 0.160.160.170.170.140.180.18(N=1.0)Food Production in India Sub Continent 50 220 Million Tonnes 6. An illustrative balance sheet of NPK in IndianAgriculture (2001) (balance 000)Nutrient Additions Removal BalanceN10,9339,613 1,310P2O5 4,188 3,702 486K2O1,454 11,657-10,202Total16,56524,971-8,406Net Balance of K is Negative 7. Exchangeable and Nonexchangeable Potassium Status in Different Soil Types of India Exchangeable K in different soil types of IndiaNonexchagneable K in different soil types ofIndia Surface Surface140Sub-surface 1200Exchangeable K (mg kg ) Sub-surface)-1 -1Nonexchangeable K (mg kg1201000100 80080 6006040 40020 200 0 0InceptisolsVertisols Alfisols InceptisolsVertisols Alfisols Acidic red and lateritic soils, light textured and acidic alluvial and shallow black soils are deficient in K Srinivasa Rao et al., Soil Science (2001) 8. Cumulative K release from Bangalore profileCumulative K release from Solapur profileunder finger millet production systemunder rabi sorghum based production system4000-1530000-15 Cum ulative K releaseCum ulative K release350 15-30250015-30300 30-4530-45(m g/kg) (m g/kg)45-60 2000250 45-6060-75 150020075-9060-75100075-90150 90-105 50090-105100I II III IVV VI VIIVIIII II IIIIV V VI VII VIII Extraction NoExtraction No Cumulative K release from Hoshiarpur profileunder maize based production systemGreater2550Srinivasa Rao etcumulative K releasevariations in K 0-15al. Indian Soc.205015-30status(mg/kg)155030-45 Soil Sci (2006)mineralogically 45-601050different soil60-75550types I II III IV V VI VII VIII75-9090-105 Extraction No 9. X-Ray diffraction intensity ratio of the peak heights of 001/002 basal reflection in the silt and clay fraction ofsome A.P.soilsSoil SeriesTaxonomyParentSize Fraction Material 50-2 um 250> 0.6GIS Mapping Nutrient Deficiencies can be mapped with GPS and these locations can be useful for impact studies and long termmonitoring the soil quality parameters 67. Available PotassiumSoil Quality IndexPotassiumSample pointsSSP_BoundaryPotasiumValue< 250250 - 350> 350SQISample pointsSSP_Boundarysqi Fertilization based on GIS mapping 3.32 - 3.76 for up scaling 3.76 - 4.204.20 - 4.644.64 - 5.085.08 - 5.52 68. Economic Benefits Due to Balanced Nutrition in Karnataka--------------------------------------------------------------------------CropAdditional benefit due to increasedyield due to balanced fertilization (Rs/ha) (US $)--------------------------------------------------------------------------Fingermillet 6300 130Sunflower21000430Maize16000 320Groundnut15200310Soybean14410 285-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69. LegumeIntercropping 70. Nitrogen Fixation by some Pulse Crops ------------------------------------------------ Crop N2 fixed(kg/ha) --------------------------------------------- Chickpea 3-141 Lentil 10-192 Fieldpea 17-244 Fababean 53-330 --------------------------------------------- 71. Residue Recycling-Soybean 72. VermicompostingVermi-wash 73. Weeds can be potential organic sources 74. Nutrient content Vermicompost (%)Organic carbon9.8-13.4N0.51-1.61P0.19-1.02K0.15-0.73Ca 1.18-7.61Mg 0.093-0.568Zn 0.0042-0.110 75. Bio-Fertilizers-RhizobiumInoculationEco-friendly 76. On Farm Generation of Organic MatterGliricidia leaves contain 3.4% N, 0.1% Pand 1.8% K besides several other nutrients.Gliricidia plants grown on 700 m long bundscan provide about 30 kg N/ha/year 77. Amount of Sediment, Organic Carbon, N and P Contents in Different Tanks inMedak District of Andhra Pradesh Total number of Tanks = 21 Amount of sediment= 48777 tons Amount of Carbon= 521 tons Amount of Nitrogen= 34.1 tons Amount of Phosphorus = 14.9 tons N Fertilizer Equivalent = Rs 378240 P Fertilizer Equivalent = Rs 285174 B:C Ratio of Desilting of Tanks: 1.23 78. Potential of organic and biological resources in India------------------------------------------------------------ResourceAnnual potential dung/biomass(m t)------------------------------------------------------------Cattle - 745Crop Residue-100Buffalo- 258 Forest litter-15.0Goat and Sheep-12.2Water hyacinth-3.0Pigs-5.0Rural compost-226Poultry- 3.4Urban compost-6.0Other livestock-6.1 Total-1410Human beings-10.1 Paroda (1997)------------------------------------------------------------ 79. Fertilizer equivalent of organic materials (mtons)---------------------------------------------------------Organic Waste 1991 2011 2025---------------------------------------------------------Crop Residues0.76 1.10 1.33Animal Wastes3.70 5.40 6.69Municipal wastes 0.02 0.030.04Sewage Wastes 0.150.21 0.27Total4.65 6.75 8.73--------------------------------------------------------- 80. VI) African Soils @ Desert Soils @ Sandy Soils@ Acid Soils@ Deep Clay Soils @ Shallow Soils @ Mediterranean Soils 81. Nutrient Uptake by IITA Mandate Crops Banana: 50 N, 15kg P, 175 kg K, 10kg Ca, 25kg Mg (30t/ha); for 58 t/ha nutrient requirements are doubled. Cassava: 12 t FYM/ha, 100-50-100 NPK (30-35 t/ha); 12 t FYM/ha, 75- 50-75 NPK (25-30t/ha), 12t FYM/ha, 50-25-50 NPK (20-25 t/ha) besides Ca, Mg and S (not in the recommendation presently) Soybean: Removal per tonne grain (67kg N, 18kg P2O5, 45kg K2O, 7kg S, 14 kg Ca, 8kg Mg, 80g Zn, 346g Fe, 83 g Mn and 30 g Cu Maize: Removal per tenne grain (26kg N, 14kg P2O5, 36kg K2O) Yam: 10-15 t FYM/ha, 80-60-80 NPK besides secondary and micro nutrients Fertilizer application: Regionally 16 kg/ha in southern Africa, 8kg/ha in eastern Africa, 3 kg/ha in Central Africa and 4 kg/ha inSudano-Sahelian zone. Average nutrient removal in Africa= 30-40kg/ha This compares with 96 kg/ha in S and SE Asia, 101 kg/ha in southAsia, and 78 kg/ha in Latin America (Morris et al., 2007). 82. Issues in Soil Science Research and Way Forward:African SituationsOptimum plant nutrition strategies: Critical nutrients!Integrated nutrient management- On farm generationUpscaling the fertility management practices (Secondaryand Micronutrients) (GIS tools)Mobilization of soil reserve nutrients- Native PSelection of efficient genotypes: Water & nutrient stressWater and nutrient interactions: Water productivityBest bet options: Genotypex Water x Nutrientinteraction should be tapped 83. Issues in Soil Science Research and Way forward: African Situations Nutrient use efficiency: Key issue (Reducing losses andefficient genotypes) Plant nutrition and human health:Combating malnutrition Land degradation, soil health or quality: Long termsustainability Conservation agriculture: Minimum tillage, nutrientrecycling, reduced runoff, low energy, reduced soil loss Carbon sequestration strategies: Climatic Change 84. AcknowledgementsDirectors of IISS-Bhopal,IIPR-Kanpur, CRIDA-Hyderabad, IndiaDirector General- ICRISAT, IndiaPartners and collaboratorsTel-Aviv UniversityFarmersStudents, trainees, internsDonarsWas elected as Fellow National Academy of AgriculturalSciences (NAAS) in 2008 for overall contributions inNRM Research. 85. Thank You Very Much

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