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  • Sustainable Composting

  • Sustainable Composting

    Case studies and guidelines for developing countries

    Editor: Mansoor Ali

    ContributorsMalcom HarperAnjum Pervez

    Jonathan RouseSilke DrescherChris Zurbrugg

    Prepared in collaboration with SANDEC/EAWAG, Switzerland

    Water, Engineering and Development CentreLoughborough University

    2004

  • Water, Engineering and Development CentreLoughborough University

    LeicestershireLE11 3TU UK

    WEDC, Loughborough University, 2004

    Any part of this publication, including the illustrations (except items taken from other publications where the authors do not hold copyright) may be copied, reproduced or adapted to meet local needs, without permission from the author/s

    or publisher, provided the parts reproduced are distributed free, or at cost and not for commercial ends, and the source is fully acknowledged as given below.

    Please send copies of any materials in which text or illustrations have been used to WEDC Publications at the address given above.

    Editor: Mansoor Ali (2004) Sustainable Composting: Case studies and guidelines for developing countries

    A reference copy of this publication is also available online from:http://www.lboro.ac.uk/wedc/

    ISBN Paperback 1 84380 071 3

    This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID)

    for the benefit of low-income countries. The views expressed are not necessarily those of DFID.

    Designed and produced at WEDC by Sue Plummer

  • v

    List of boxes

    Box 3.1. Advanced locality management, Mumbai ............................... 20Box 3.2. Vermigold Ecotech Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai .................................... 23Box 3.3. TATA Power Residents Colony, Mumbai ................................. 24Box 5.1. Ratnapura Municipal Council ................................................ 40Box 5.2. Horizon Lanka Private Ltd..................................................... 41Box 5.3. National Forum of Peoples Organisation ............................... 42Box 5.4. University of Peradeniya, Kandy ............................................ 43Box 5.5. Womens community groups in Galle..................................... 45Box 9.1. Calculating market demand.................................................. 86Box 9.2. Developing an array of products............................................ 90Box 9.3. Example of compost distribution in Bangladesh ...................... 94Box 9.4. Promoting your product according to preferences

    in Lahore ........................................................................... 97

    List of figures

    Figure 6.1. Waste Concerns organizational structure................................ 52Figure 9.1. Example map of distribution process ...................................... 93

  • vi

    List of photographs

    Photograph 2.1. Non-compostable coconut shells at a plant in Sri Lanka. ...... 9Photograph 3.1. Shallow windrow composting at Sindh Colony, Pune. .......... 16Photograph 3.2. Composting bins at Kalyana Nagar Residents Association,

    Bangalore. ..................................................................... 18Photograph 3.3. Box system located at the Diamond Garden

    Residents Forum. ........................................................... 20Photograph 3.4. Vermi-composting scheme at the Dadar Pumping Station. .. 23Photograph 3.5. Pit composting at TATA Power Residents Colony................. 24Photograph 5.1. Piles of waste and compost at the Ratnapura site. ............. 40Photograph 5.2. The composting chute in Peradeniya, Kandy. ..................... 43Photograph 6.1. Waste Concern barrel composting .................................... 55

    List of tables

    Table 3.1. Community-based initiatives, sorted by the number of householdsserviced .............................................................................. 19

    Table 3.2. Overview of small and medium size composting businesses visited................................................................................. 22

    Table 4.1. Components of 'Bhoosampda' organic compost....................... 32Table 4.2. Compost production costs..................................................... 35Table 5.1. Key strengths and objectives of composting groups ................. 46Table 9.1. Marketing environment analysis - opportunities and threats ...... 82Table 9.2. Understanding your market ................................................... 83Table 9.3. The present market by segment............................................. 85Table 9.4. The communications mix ...................................................... 95

  • vii

    Contents

    List of boxes ................................................................................................vList of figures .............................................................................................. vList of photographs ..................................................................................... viList of tables .............................................................................................. viContents ................................................................................................... vii

    Part 1: Introduction

    Chapter 1 ...................................................................................... 3Background

    Chapter 2 ...................................................................................... 5The context2.1 Issues ......................................................................................... 6

    Part 2: Case Studies

    Chapter 3 .................................................................................... 15Decentralized composting in India3.1 Why decentralized composting? .................................................... 16

    3.2 Types of decentralized composting schemes ................................... 17

    3.3 Conclusions ................................................................................ 25

    3.4 References and further reading ..................................................... 27

    Chapter 4 .................................................................................... 29A composting business in India4.1 The origins of the business ........................................................... 29

    4.2 The process ................................................................................ 31

    4.3 Job creation ................................................................................ 32

    4.4 Marketing ................................................................................... 33

    4.5 Finance and costs ....................................................................... 34

    4.6 Conclusions ................................................................................ 36

    4.7 Acknowledgements ...................................................................... 37

  • viii

    Chapter 5 .................................................................................... 39Composting in Sri Lanka5.1 Methodology used ....................................................................... 39

    5.2 Key issues emerging .................................................................... 46

    5.3 Lessons and recommendations ..................................................... 49

    5.4 Acknowledgements ...................................................................... 50

    Chapter 6 .................................................................................... 51Composting in Dhaka, Bangladesh6.1 Waste Concern ............................................................................ 51

    6.2 Windrow composting plants .......................................................... 52

    6.3 Barrel composting plants .............................................................. 54

    6.4 The market ................................................................................. 57

    6.5 Marketing and private-sector partnership ........................................ 58

    6.6 Other issues for composting in Dhaka ............................................ 59

    6.7 Key lessons learned ..................................................................... 60

    6.8 Acknowledgements ...................................................................... 61

    Chapter 7 .................................................................................... 63Waste busters, Lahore, Pakistan7.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 63

    7.2 Waste collection .......................................................................... 63

    7.3 The waste recycling and composting plant ...................................... 65

    7.4 Marketing ................................................................................... 68

    7.5 Sales and promotion .................................................................... 70

    7.6 Conclusions ................................................................................ 71

    Part 3: Guidelines for Composters

    Chapter 8 .................................................................................... 75Key findings8.1 Ensure a reliable waste collection .................................................. 75

    8.2 Encourage local authorities to offer support .................................... 75

    8.3 Develop less land-intensive techniques .......................................... 76

  • ix

    8.4 Establish good relations with local authorities ................................. 76

    8.5 Develop