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- 1.SUPERSTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION At the end of this topic, students should be able to: 1. List superstructure construction. 2. Describe the methods of superstructure construction.
2. SUPERSTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION Superstructure building parts located above the ground level such as column, beam, floor, wall and roof. Materials - timber, steel and concrete. 3. Frame Structure Construction Timber FrameFloorWallRoof 4. Frame Structure Construction Reinforced Concrete Frame Column & Beam ConstructionFormwork DesignReinforced Steel Bar ConstructionConcrete PouringFormwork stripping 5. A) Timber Floor i) Floor Timber floor consist of plank of wood with 25mm thickness which is supported by joist with size of 50mm x 75mm to 100mm. Distance for joist is between 300mm x 600mm from centre to centre. 6. i) Floor Strutting installed between joist. Purpose to prevent the joist from twisting. 7. i) Floor All joist are arranged on timber beam. Timber beam should be bigger than timber joist. 8. A) Timber Frame ii) Wall Pieces of planks are used to constructed a wooden wall by nailing on timber wall structure. 9. A) Timber Frame iii) Roof i. ii. iii. iv. v. i. ii.Factors that influenced roof structure design: Span distance. Types of roof cover. Roof cover load and weather load. Cost. Aesthetic value. Main characteristics of timber roof structure: Enough strength to support the cover load and external load such as rain and storm. All the frame parts consist o treated hard timber. 10. Types of roof structure from timber 11. B) Reinforced Concrete Frame Column and beam constructionConcrete column formworkConcrete beam formworkBeam is a part of a building which sustains load and transfer it to column. The column then transfer all its load to the building foundation. 12. Procedures for column and beam construction 1.Formwork designFormwork construction for concrete columnFormwork construction for concrete beamConcrete formwork purpose is to place and form concrete mixture according to prescribed size and design. It is a temporary building structure which needs to be opened when the concrete inside hardens 13. Procedures for column and beam construction 2.Reinforcement steel bars installation 14. Procedures for column and beam construction 3.Concrete pouring 15. Procedures for column and beam construction 4.Formwork stripping FORMWORK PARTFORMWORK STRIPPING DURATIONStripping side parts of beam and column formwork.2 6 DAYSStripping bottom parts, beam support and other unloading parts7 14 DAYSStripping bottom parts beam support and other loading parts28 DAYS 16. EXAMPLE OF FORMWORK STRIPPING 17. Load Bearing Wall Construction Load bearing wall is constructed in order to support load other than its own. Wall will support all loads before transferring them to the foundation. The wall thickness is normally not less than one brick or 215 mm.Example of load bearing wallThis wall also uses reinforcement steel bars or is combined with column to strengthen its position. 18. Load Bearing Wall Construction Non-load bearing wall is the wall which does not support other load except its own. This wall is constructed on building which has frames such as column and concrete beam. The wall thickness is sufficient with only half a brick or 102.5 mm and is normally constructed with a stretcher bond. Example of nonload bearing wall