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Soil Nutrients and Fertilizers Essential Standard 6.00- Explain the role of nutrients and fertilizers. Slide 2 Objective 6.01 Discuss macro and micro nutrients and the role they play in plant deficiencies. Slide 3 Macro vs Micro Nutrients Macro nutrients are required by the plant in relatively large amounts Micro nutrients are required only in small amounts minor or trace elements Slide 4 Macro nutrients Non-mineral elements carbon (C) hydrogen (H) oxygen (O) Primary Nutrients Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Secondary Nutrients calcium (Ca) magnesium (Mg) sulfur (S) Slide 5 Micro nutrients Iron (Fe) Copper (Cu) Zinc (Zn) Boron (B) Molybdenum (Mo) Manganese (Mn) Chlorine (Cl) Slide 6 Functions of Nitrogen Promotes growth of leaves and stems Gives dark green color and improves quality of foliage Necessary to develop cell proteins and chlorophyll Slide 7 Nitrogen Deficiency symptoms sick, yellow-green color short stems, small leaves, pale colored leaves and flowers slow and dwarfed plant growth Slide 8 Nitrogen deficiency Slide 9 Functions of Phosphorus Stimulates early formation and growth of roots Provides for fast and vigorous growth and speeds maturity Stimulates flowering and seed development Necessary for the enzyme action of many plant processes Slide 10 Phosphorus Deficiency symptoms decrease in growth slow maturity older leaves are purplish color Slide 11 Phosphorus Deficiency Slide 12 Functions of Potassium Used to form carbohydrates and proteins Formation and transfer of starches, sugars and oils Increases disease resistance, vigor and hardiness Slide 13 Potassium Deficiency symptoms mottled, spotted, streaked or curled leaves scorched, burned, dead leaf tips and margins Slide 14 Potassium Deficiency Slide 15 Secondary Nutrients Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sulfur (S) Slide 16 Functions of Calcium Improves plant vigor Influences intake and synthesis of other plant nutrients Important part of cell walls Slide 17 Calcium Deficiency symptoms small developing leaves wrinkled older leaves dead stem tips Slide 18 Calcium Deficiency Slide 19 Functions of Magnesium Influences the intake of other essential nutrients Helps make fats Assists in translocation of phosphorus and fats Slide 20 Magnesium Deficiency symptoms Interveinal chlorosis-yellowing of leaves between green veins leaf tips curl or cup upward slender, weak stalks Slide 21 Magnesium Deficiency Slide 22 Functions of Sulfur Promotes root growth and vigorous vegetative growth Essential to protein formation Slide 23 Sulfur Deficiency symptoms young leaves are light green with lighter color veins yellow leaves and stunted growth Slide 24 Sulfur Deficiency Slide 25 Micro Nutrients Also called trace elements Needed by plants in small amounts Slide 26 Iron (Fe) Functions of Iron Essential for chlorophyll production Helps carry electrons to mix oxygen with other elements Deficiency symptoms mottled and interveinal chlorosis in young leaves stunted growth and slender, short stems Slide 27 Iron Deficiency Slide 28 Copper (Cu) Functions Helps in the use of Iron Helps respiration Deficiency symptoms young leaves are small and permanently wilt multiple buds at stem tip Slide 29 Copper Deficiency Slide 30 Zinc (Z) Functions plant metabolism helps form growth hormones reproduction Deficiency symptoms retarded growth between nodes (rosetted) new leaves are thick and small spotted between veins, discolored veins Slide 31 Zinc Deficiency Slide 32 Boron (B) Functions affects water absorption by roots translocation of sugars Deficiency Symptoms short, thick stem tips young leaves of terminal buds are light green at base leaves become twisted and die Slide 33 Boron Deficiency Slide 34 Manganese (Mn) Functions plant metabolism nitrogen transformation Deficiency symptoms interveinal chlorosis young leaves die Slide 35 Manganese Deficiency Slide 36 Molybdenum (Mo) Functions plant development reproduction Deficiency symptoms stunted growth yellow leaves, upward curling leaves, leaf margins burn Slide 37 Molybdenum Deficiency Slide 38 Chlorine (Cl) Functions essential to some plant processes acts in enzyme systems Deficiency symptoms usually more problems with too much chlorine or toxicity than with deficiency Slide 39 Chlorine Deficiency Slide 40 Fertilizers Slide 41 Objective 6.02 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various fertilizers. Slide 42 Types of Fertilizers Complete Incomplete Organic Inorganic Soluble Insoluble Slide 43 Complete vs. Incomplete Complete has all three primary nutrients-nitrogen phosphorous & potassium Examples: 10-10-10, 15-30-15, 20-5-20 Incomplete DOES NOT have all three primary nutrients Examples: 20-0-0, 0-20-0, 12-0-44 Slide 44 Organic Fertilizers Comes from plant or animal matter and contains carbon compounds Examples: urea, sludge and animal tankage Slide 45 Advantages of Organic Slow release of nutrients Not easily leached from the soil Add organic components to growing media Slide 46 Disadvantages of Organic Hard to get Not sterile Low nutrient content Expensive Slide 47 Inorganic Fertilizers Comes from sources other than animals or plants Chemical products Slide 48 Advantages of Inorganic Can make the desired ratio of nutrients easy to get lower cost Slide 49 Disadvantages of Inorganic No organic material possible chemical building up in growing media Slide 50 Soluble Fertilizer Dissolve in water and are applied as a liquid solution Fertigation fertilizing through irrigation water big advantage Slide 51 Insoluble Fertilizer Includes granular and slow release applied to the growing media Slide 52 Granular vs. Slow Release Granular relatively inexpensive easy to find Slow Release more expensive because it is coated more uniform release of nutrients over time period Slide 53 Fertilizer Analysis Fertilizer analysis expresses weight as a percent of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium 20-10-20 Slide 54 Fertilizer Analysis For Example A 100 pound bag of fertilizer has an analysis of 15-5-15. How many pounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are in the bag? Nitrogen: 100lbs X 15%=15lbs Phosphorus: 100lbs X 5%=5lbs Potassium: 100lbs X 15%=15lbs Slide 55 Fertilizer Ratios A fertilizer with a 10-10-10 analysis would have a 1:1:1 ratio A fertilizer with a 24-8-16 analysis would have a 3:1:2 ratio What would be the ratio for a fertilizer with an analysis of 36-18-27? 4:2:3 Slide 56 Application Procedures Banding Sidedressing Topdressing Perforating Broadcasting Foliar spraying Fertigation Slide 57 Banding Placing a band of fertilizer about two inches to the sides and about two inches below seed depth. DO NOT place below the seeds because fertilizer will burn the roots. Slide 58 Sidedressing Placing a band of fertilizer near the soil surface and to the sides after seedlings emerge from the soil. Slide 59 Topdressing Mixing fertilizer uniformly into the top one to two inches of growing media around the plant. Slide 60 Perforating Placing fertilizer in 12-18 holes drilled 18 to 24 around the canopy drip line of fruit trees. Cover the holes and fertilizer slowly dissolves. Slide 61 Broadcasting Spreading fertilizer to cover the entire production area Slide 62 Foliar Spraying Spraying micronutrients in a solution directly on plant leaves. Quickly corrects nutrient deficiencies Fertilizer concentration should not be too high or leaf burning will occur. Slide 63 Fertigation Incorporating water-soluble fertilizer into the irrigation system of greenhouse and nursery crops. Concentrated solutions usually pass through proportioners or injectors to dilute to the correct ratio. Venturi-type Positive-displacement Slide 64 Venturi-type Simple and inexpensive less accurate depends on water pressure in the hose and in the smaller tube to proportion Example: Hozon Slide 65 Positive-displacement More expensive very accurate physically inject and mix specific amounts of concentrated solution and water Examples: commander proportioners, and Smith injectors Slide 66 Rules for applying fertilizers Method used should be practical, effective and cost efficient Method used affects nutrient availability for plant use Fertilizer must be dissolved and reach plant roots


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