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  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    SocialProtec,onFromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    SynergiesbetweenSocialProtec,onandAgriculture:Whatistheevidencesofar?

    SilvioDaidone

    MasterCourseinPublicPolicy&HumanDevelopmentMaastricht,March29,2017

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    BackgroundAroundtheworld,1Bpoorpeopleand780MhungryConcentratedinSSA,livinginruralareas,theirlivelihoodsdependinglargelyonagricultureCoordinatedandcoherentagriculturalandsocialprotecAonpoliciesandprogramstobreaktheintergeneraAonaltransmissionofpovertyAginterven,onsaddresssomeoftheconstraintslimiAngaccesstonaturalresources,producAveinputs,financialandadvisoryservicesandmarkets SPprovidesliquiditytoinvestmoreAmeandresourcesinag,increaseparAcipaAoninsocialnetworksandbeHermanagerisks

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Whatiscoherence? TheFrameworkforAnalysisandAcAon(FAA)inGavrilovicetal.(2016)definescoherenceas:

    asystema(cpromo(onofcomplementaryandconsistentpoliciesandprogramsacrosssectors,therebycrea(ngsynergiestocombatruralpovertyandfoodinsecuritymoreeffec(vely Coherencetoavoid/minimizeconflicAnginteracAonsbetweenpolicies/programs Coherencecanbepursuedhorizontally(acrossministries/agencies)orverAcally(acrossdifferentlevelsofgovernment) CoherenceasaresultofchanceorthroughdeliberatecoordinatedacAonsbetweenstakeholders

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    WhyAgandSPcanbemoreeffec,vewhenworkingtogether?

    1. NeitheragriculturenorsocialprotecAonalonecanaddressallconstraintsfacedbypoorruralhouseholds

    2. CoherenceavoidspotenAalharm

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Literaturereviewobjec,vesTogatherandsystemaAzeevidenceonthevalueaddedofcoordinatedandcoherentsocialprotecAon(SP)andagriculturalintervenAons(AI);

    ToassesswhetheritispossibletoidenAfywhichtypeofcombinedintervenAonshavehadthegreatestimpactswithindifferentcontexts;

    Tocontributetodefiningafutureevidence-generaAonagendabyidenAfyingcriAcalknowledgegaps;

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Typologyofcombinedinterven,onsaspertheliteraturesurvey

    a. SustainableLivelihoodPrograms(SLP):singleprogramswithmulAplecomponentsincludingbothagriculturalandsocialprotecAonintervenAons;

    b. ComplementaryPrograms(CP):programsfromthetwosectorsthataredesignedand/orimplementedinasomewhatcoordinatedand/oralignedmanner;

    c. Overlappingprogrammes(OP):programsfrombothsectorswithoutalignmentorcoordinaAonwhichbeneficiariescanparAallyoverlapattheindividual/householdand/oratgeographical/communitylevelonlyinanunplannedmanner

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Examplesofcombinedinterven,ons

    SustainableLivelihoodProgrammes:CFPRIandIIandFSUP-Bangladesh;GraduaAonintoSustainablelivelihoods(India(2),Pakistan,Ethiopia,Ghana,HondurasandPeru)ComplementaryProgrammes:IndiraKranAPathan(IKP)(India),P-135II(Vietnam),PNSP+OFSP/HABP(Ethiopia),CGP+LFSSP(Lesotho);HakuWiay(Peru),Atencionacrisis+investmentgrantorvocaAonaltraining(Nicaragua).OverlappingProgrammes:Oportunidades+Procampo(Mexico);BolsaFamilia+ruralcredit(Brazil);CCT+foodsecurityandagriculturaldevelopment(ElSalvador)

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    TheBRACmodel

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Theoryofchange

    Ref:Tirivayietal.(2013)

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    SearchProtocol:basedonexpertsfeedbackdatabasesearchandhand-search a.)PopulaAonofinterest:ruralpoorandvulnerablepopulaAonlivinginLaAn

    AmericaandtheCaribbean,Asia,AfricaandEasternEurope b.1)AgricultureintervenAons:ruraldevelopment,accesstomarkets,natural

    resourcesmanagement,distribuAonof(improved)seeds,ferAlizersubsidies(vouchers),extensionservices,subsidizedcredit,investmentgrants,asset(livestock)transfers,andhomesteadgardening

    b.2)SocialprotecAonintervenAons:socialcashtransfers(includingCCTs,CTsandsocialpensions)andpublicworks,aswellasotherbroadcategoriesthatinsomecontextsarenotclassifiedassocialprotecAonsuchasassettransfers,home-grownschoolfeedingprogrammes,microfinance,andweather-basedcropinsurance;

    Outcomesofinterest:income,expenditure/consumpAon,assetorwealthindex,poverty,purchaseanduseofinputssuchasferAlizers,investmentinproducAveassetsincludinglandandlivestock,labourmarketparAcipaAonandoccupaAonalchoices,hoursofwork,privatetransfers,sourcesofincome,foodsecurityandindicatorsforinvolvementinsocialnetworksandsocialparAcipaAon

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Criteriaforselec,on

    Onlypapersand/orevaluaAonreportsproducedajer1990;

    OnlypaperswriHeninEnglish,Spanish,PortugueseandFrench;

    UsearobustimpactevaluaAonmethodology,basedonanadequateidenAficaAonstrategy,includingthedefiniAonofaclearcomparisongroupandcounterfactual.

    Useofexperimental(randomizedcontroltrials),usuallyseenintheliteratureasthegold-standardamongtheevaluaAontechniques,andnon-experimentaldesigns(e.g.differences-in-differences,propensityscorematching,regressiondisconAnuitydesign,generalizedpropensityscoreandinstrumentalvariables)

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Totalnumberofevalua,onpapers/reportsofcombinedprograms

    year Freq. %2009 2 52010 2 52011 1 32012 7 192013 1 32014 5 14

    2015/6 19 51Total 37 100

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Evalua,onpapersbyregion:AsiaCountry PROGRAMMES:Papersand/orReports N

    %

    ASIA 17 46

    Bangladesh

    CFPRPhase1(SLP):Ahmedetal.(2009);Emranetal.(2014);Razaetal.(2012);Krishnaetal.(2010);Mishaetal.(2014);CFPRPhase2(SLP):Raza&Ara(2012);Bandieraetal.(2013);CLPPhase1(SLP+CP):HTPSELimited(2011)ER+(SLP+CP):Hernandezetal.(2015);FSUP(SLP):BDI(2012)SHOUHARDO(CP):Smithetal.(2011)

    12

    32

    India

    Gradua,onintoSustainableLivelihood(SLP):Banerjeeetal.(2015);Gradua,onintoSustainableLivelihood(SLP):Bauchetetal.(2015);IndiraKran,PathamIKP(CP):Prennushi&Gupta(2014)

    3

    8

    Pakistan Gradua,onintoSustainableLivelihood(SLP):Banerjeeetal.(2015) 1

    3

    Vietnam P-135II(CP):IRC(2012) 1 3

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Evalua,onpapersbyregion:LAC Country PROGRAMMES:Papersand/orReports N %

    LAC

    11 29.7

    Peru

    Gradua,onintoSustainableLivelihood(SLP):Banerjeeetal.(2015);JuntosandSierraSur(OP):Aldanaetal.(2016);JuntosandRuralcredit(OP):DelPozo(2014);JuntosandWakuWiay(CP):EscobalandPonce(2015)

    4

    10.8

    Brazil BolsaFamiliaandPRONAF(OP):Garciaetal.(2016) 1 2.7 Chile IEFandFosissproduc,vesupport(CP):Fernandezetal.(2016) 1 2.7

    Colombia FamiliasenAccinandOportunidadesRurales(CP/OP):Moya(2016) 1

    2.7

    Honduras Gradua,onintoSustainableLivelihood(SLP):Banerjeeetal.(2015) 1

    2.7

    Mexico OportunidadesandPROCAMPO(OP):Naudeetal.(2016) 1 2.7 Nicaragua

    AtencionaCrisisandcomplementaryprogrammes(CP):Macoursetal.(2012)

    1

    2.7

    ElSalvador ComunidadesSolidariasRuralesandruraldevelopmentinterven,ons(OP):DeSanfelietal.(2016) 1

    2.7

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Evalua,onpapersbyregion:SSACountry PROGRAMMES:Papersand/orReports N %

    AFRICA

    9 24

    Ethiopia

    Gradua,onintoSustainableLivelihood(SLP):Banerjeeetal.(2015);PSNP+OFSP/HASP(CP):Gilliganetal.(2009);HoddinoHetal.(2012);Negaetal.(2010)

    4

    11

    Uganda

    Women'sIncomeGenera,onSupportWINGS(SLP):BlaHmanetal.(2014)

    1 2.7

    Ghana Gradua,onintoSustainableLivelihood(SLP):Banerjeeetal.(2015) 1

    2.7

    Lesotho

    ChildGrantProgrammeandLinkingFoodSecurityandSocialProtec,on(CP):Dewbreetal.(2015)

    1

    2.7

    Malawi

    SocialCashTransferProgrammeandFarmInputSubsidyProgramme:Paceetal.(2016)

    1 2.7 Burkina Faso

    LocalEduca,onAssistanceandProcurementproject(LEAP):integra,nglocalprocurementintoalongstandingschoolfeedingprogramme:Uptonetal.(2012) 1 2.7

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Keyfeaturesofthecombinedprogramsevaluatedandmethodologies

    qStrongassociaAonbetweenregionsandtheprevalenceofcertaincategoriesofprogrammesintheevaluaAonsaswellaswithregardtothetypeofinstrumentsusedbythedifferentprogrammes:

    Asia:SLPdesignfocusonlivestocktransfersandextensionservices(training)coupledwithconsumpAonsupport(cashtransfers);coachingandlinkswithothersocialservices.Bangladeshover-represented.

    LaAnAmerica:CCTprogramme+extensionservicesandruralcredit+somelivelihoodintervenAons.Peruover-represented.

    Africa:MorebalancedCP(publicworks+agriculturalintervenAons),SLPpilotsandSCT+livelihoods.Ethiopiaover-represented.

    qGraduaAonintoSustainablelivelihoodLargeevidencebaseacrossregions.

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Keyfeaturesofthecombinedprogramsevaluatedandmethodologies

    Unliketheliteratureonsingleprogrammes,parAcularlyonSPprogrammes,therearenotmuchimpactevaluaitonofcombinedprogrammes;

    DifficulAesinthecoordinaAonalsoaffecttheevaluaAondesignwhereasSLPhadexperimentaldesigns,mostCPandOPhasquasi-experimentaldesign;

    SynergieswereparAcularlydifficulttomeasureacrossdesigns(SPLnovarietyindesignacrosstreatedgroups(armtreatments);CPandOPrarelyonepuretreatedgroupbothintervenAons.

    FocusonAIandSPthatoverlapatthehouseholdlevelregardlessoftheirnature:SLP,CPorOPInterestintheAveragetreatmenteffectonthetreated(ATT)and/orIntenAontotreat(ITT).

    Notmuchoneffectsonnon-beneficiariesonlyoneligiblenon-beneficiarywhenspillovereffectsareassessed.Clearlylinkedwiththetypeofmethodologieschosenandcostofsurveys.

    NotCGEand/orLEWIE.Onex-anteCGE,seeLevyandRobinson(2014).

  • SocialProtec,on-FromProtec,ontoProduc,on

    Methodologyusedintheevalua,onsMethodology N Randomizedcontroltrial(Experimentalevalua,ons) 12 Diffe