september 10, 2013 1.  review: course structure  critical thinking assignment  historical...

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Forestry 415

Critical Thinking, Historical ContextSeptember 10, 2013 1

Todays AgendaReview: Course StructureCritical Thinking AssignmentHistorical OverviewNDP YearsCampbell Years

September 10, 2013 2Critical Thinking assignmentDaniel Kahan, What Is Motivated Reasoning and How Does It Work?, Science and Religion Today May 4, 2011. Mark Hume, The fight to protect whats left of old-growth forests, Globe and Mail, March 17, 2013September 6, 2012 3Motivated reasoningmotivated cognition: unconscious tendency to fit processing of information to conclusions that suit some end or goalbiased information search: seeking out (or disproportionally attending to) evidence that is congruent rather than incongruent with the motivating goalbiased assimilation: crediting and discrediting evidence selectively in patterns that promote rather than frustrate the goalidentity-protective cognition: reacting dismissively to information the acceptance of which would experience dissonance or anxiety.Daniel Kahan, What Is Motivated Reasoning and How Does It Work?, Science and Religion Today May 4, 2011.

4Critical Thinking Assignment for TuesdayRead the Hume articleWrite down and bring to class:1 important argument in the articleValue(s) underlying that argumentFactual assertion, if any, behind the argumentMax 15 minutes of research to fact-check

5TuesdayCritical reading assignmentEvolution of BC forest policyReadings: Daniel Kahan, What Is Motivated Reasoning and How Does It Work?, Science and Religion Today May 4, 2011.

BC Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations, Timber Tenures in British Columbia: Managing Public Forests in the Public Interest, June 2012,

George Hoberg, Bringing the Market Back In: BC Natural Resource Policies During the Campbell Years, in British Columbia Politics and Government, Micheal Howlett, Dennis Pilon, and Tracy Sommerville, eds, (Toronto: Edmond Montgomery, 2010), pp. 331-43, 349-51. (reading packet)

September 5. 2013 6ArgumentsSeptember 10, 2013 7valuesSeptember 10, 2013 8evidenceSeptember 10, 2013 9Todays AgendaReview: Course StructureCritical Thinking AssignmentHistorical OverviewNDP YearsCampbell Years

September 10, 2013 10Relevant readingsBC Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations, Timber Tenures in British Columbia: Managing Public Forests in the Public Interest, June 2012, http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/ftp/hth/external/!publish/web/timber-tenures/timber-tenures-2006.pdf

George Hoberg, Bringing the Market Back In: BC Natural Resource Policies During the Campbell Years, inBritish Columbia Politics and Government, Michael Howlett, Dennis Pilon, and Tracy Sommerville, eds, (Toronto: Edmond Montgomery, 2010), pp. 331-43, 349-51. (reading packet) note figure 18.3 label backwardsSeptember 10, 2013 11Why study history?Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it George Santayana

Policy legacies of the past constrain present options

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David Haley and Harry Nelson, British Columbia Crown Tenure System in a Changing World Challenges and Opportunities, Synthesis Paper SP-06-01, BC Forum on Forest Economics and Policy, October 2006BCs forest tenure system is an anachronism.* With its origins in the mid-20th century, it is the legacy of another eraand ill-equipped to deal with the realities of the 21st century, including the changing character of the timber resource, changing public attitudes towards and demands on crown forests

September 10, 2013 13Anachronism: A thing belonging or appropriate to a period other than that in which it exists, esp. a thing that is conspicuously old-fashioned.Categories of Forest PolicyAllocation of Crown timber-- tenure Pricing -- stumpage Rate of harvest allowable annual cut (AAC)Land Use zoning for different values (logging, conservation, etc)Regulation of harvesting -- Forest PracticesEmergent areas and overlaps (energy, carbon)

1414Tenure definedBC forestry glossary http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/library/documents/glossary/Glossary.pdfSeptember 10, 2013 15

Tenure at core of forest policy in Canadait is evident that forest tenures are means by which governments grant benefit streams from forest resources to individuals or organizations, subject to numerous operational rules that are conditions of holding tenure.

As such, we define forest tenures as property rights to forest resources granted to private firms by governments.

In Canada, Crown forest tenures that delineate property rights to the nations public forests influence the behaviour of both public and private agents in the forest sector and, consequently, have been key instruments of public forest policy since the earliest years of colonization. Luckert et al p 50September 10, 2013 16pre-1912: Era of Unregulated Exploitationoutright land sales (mostly Railroad)< 5%, but high qualitytimber leases since 1865 (old temporary tenures)contained appurtenancy provision linking harvesting rights to the operation of sawmill

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appurtenancyrestriction on the property right of the tenure agreementappurtenancy refers to whether a tenure holder must own and/or operate a processing facility for the products covered by the tenure in order to exercise the rights granted (Luckert et al p 63)September 10, 2013 18Appurtenancy requirements vary. In some cases products harvested under the terms of a tenure must be directed to the appurtenant processing facility. In other cases, mere ownership of a processing facility by the tenure holder is sufficient181912-1946: economic development through timber allocation1912: Forest ActFollowed from the Fulton CommissionFocus on timber allocation, revenues, and economic developmentCreated Forest ServiceCreated Timber Sale Licencesawarded on competitive bids, no appurtenancyall management done by governmentcontained objective of protecting the water supply

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1947-1977 Sustained Yield of Timber (1)1947 AmendmentsFollowed Sloan Royal CommissionSustained yield policy -- rate of cutForest Management Licences (future Tree Farm Licences)area-based, unlimited in term (later changed)management responsibilities delegated to private companiesintended to attract large capital investments necessary for large plants (economic development)some had appurtenancy clauses

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1947-1977 Sustained Yield of Timber Allocation of new licences very controversialSommers Affair - Minister of Forests convicted for taking bribeslate 1950s-early 60s, move away from competitive biddingContinued domination of economic values

September 10, 2013 211978-1980: Beginnings of Environmental Concern1978 Amendments (+ Ministry of Forests Act)Followed Pearse Royal Commissionexplicit incorporation of environmental valuesBusiness-oriented Socred government struggled to accommodate surging environmental concern

September 10, 2013 221982-1987 Early integrated resource managementearly 1980sdeep staff cutssympathetic administration1987 Amendmentsrequired private sector to bear full financial responsibility for reforestationresponse to US countervailing duty pressures

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1988-1990 Early integrated resource managementRejuvenation of environmental concern1988: proposal to rollover all volume-based (FL) tenures to area-based (TFL) creates crisisCriticized as privatization1989: Forest Resources Commission appointedbeginning of the end of the old regime

September 10, 2013 24Themes from Historical Analysisevolution of tenureless competition, more concentration of controlmore private management responsibilitiesGovernment-business partnershipeconomic concerns dominant (FP = BC econ development policy)environmental concerns peripheralwhen in crisis, appoint a Commission

September 10, 2013 251990s: The NDP Years1991: NDP government electedForest Practices Code significantly expanded government regulation of how logging was doneLand Use Planning comprehensive planning framework designed to increase protected areas to 12%Timber Supply Review brought more rigour and care to determination of rate of harvestForest Renewal BC created to invest in future forest and compensate workers

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261990s: The NDP Years1996: shift from Harcourt to Clarkfrom pale green to labour brownJobs and Timber Accord tried to tie cutting rights to provision of jobssome significant change to protect environmental valuesincreased government regulation of economic transactions, labour market

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Analytical Framework: Forces at work in natural resources policy28environmentgovernancemarketspoliciesactionsConse-quences1997 to present (?): Continuing CrisisMarketsTechnology and new supplyHigh costsrestricted US market accessLow rate of returnExchange rateUS demandPrice of lumber

GovernanceEnvironmental movementFirst NationsEnvironmentClimate change and forest health

September 10, 2013 29September 10, 2013September 6, 200730

The Campbell Era: Bringing the Market Back inMay 2001: BC Liberals elected77 of 79 seats

Major Liberal Initiatives(see Hoberg Bringing reading)results-based codecheaper, simpler, while maintaining environmental valuesworking forestcompensate for protected areas with industrial zone - FAILEDmarket based pricingeconomic deregulation (eliminated appurtenancy)new relationship with First Nations2008: Forestry Roundtable

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Tenure summarySeptember 10, 2013 32

http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/ftp/hth/external/!publish/web/timber-tenures/apportionment/aptr032.pdfThursdayRead: Special Committee on Timber Supply, Growing Fibre, Growing Value, Victoria: Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, August 2012. Read over simulations and think about wh