scientific genius, creativity, and insight major questions what is science? what is genius?...
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- Scientific Genius, Creativity, and Insight
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- Major Questions What is science? What is genius? What is creativity? What is insight? How do these all fit together?
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- What is science? Science versus art Hard versus soft sciences Disciplinary hierarchies: physical, biological, and social sciences, humanities and the arts
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- What is genius? Superlative intelligence? High IQ? >130? >140? >? But
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- What is genius? Superlative intelligence? Prodigious performance? Examples Chess champion? Violin virtuoso? Olympic athlete? Mathematical prodigy? e.g. SMPY @ Vanderbilt Terence Tao
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- What is genius? Superlative intelligence? Prodigious performance? Extraordinary achievement? Leadership? Creativity?
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- What is creativity? What are the criteria? Two or three? How are the criteria assessed? Qualitative or quantitative? How are the assessments combined? Additive or multiplicative? Who makes the assessments? Personal or consensual?
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- What is creativity? What are the criteria? Two or three? Two criteria Novel or original Useful or valuable Three criteria Original Useful or valuable Surprising or nonobvious Hence, diminished role for domain-specific expertise
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- What is creativity? How are the criteria assessed? Qualitative or quantitative? Qualitative: Yes/No? Quantitative: Interval scale? Hence, tradeoffs Ratio scale? True zero point? Proportion/probability?
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- What is creativity? How are the assessments combined? Additive or multiplicative? Additive: e.g. originality + usefulness? Compensatory tradeoffs Normal distribution Multiplicative: e.g., originality X usefulness Criterion veto power Skewed distribution
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- What is creativity? Who makes the assessments? Personal or consensual? Personal: Little-c creativity Consensual: Big-C Creativity Hence, personal-consensual mismatch Personal > consensual Personal < consensual Personal consensual Latter more common in high-consensus fields such as the hard sciences
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- What is insight? Distinctions: Algorithmic versus heuristic tasks Reasonable versus unreasonable problems Obvious versus surprising ideas
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- What is insight? Processes and procedures: Incubation Divergent thinking Remote association Defocused attention Playful tinkering
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- How do these all fit together? The scientific genius is someone who generates Big-C ideas that are consensually original, useful, and surprising The last criterion indicates that the ideas require genuine insight rather than the straightforward application of domain-specific expertise e.g.s
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