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Safety Intelligence: Senior Leadership and Safety. Laura Fruhen University of Aberdeen. Outline. What is leadership? Leadership and safety Full range Leadership Leader-Member-Exchange Top Level Leadership and Safety Leadership activities Safety Intelligence. What is leadership?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Safety Intelligence: Senior Leadership and SafetyLaura Fruhen University of Aberdeen

1OutlineWhat is leadership?Leadership and safetyFull range LeadershipLeader-Member-ExchangeTop Level Leadership and SafetyLeadership activitiesSafety Intelligence


What is leadership?

What are tasks of a leader? What do you expect a leader to do? To be like? What do these people have in common? What is different between them?3

Fleishman et al (1991)This is the answer: this is leadership; taxonomy of leader behavior

However in case you like a less detailed response: next slide4

What is leadership?Leadership = [] constituting a process of social influence that is enacted by designated individuals who hold formal leadership roles in organizations(Kelloway & Barling, 2010; p. 261)

Leadership =the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives(Yukl, 2002 ; p. 7)5Trait Definition of Leadership

Leadership is determined byHeightIntelligenceExtraversionMasculinityDominanceEtc

(e.g. Lord et al. 1986)Process Definition of Leadership


FollowersInteractionGenerally, there are two streams in psychology at the moment still and both have had more or less relevant position sin the history of leadership research.

These are two ways of looking at leadership.6Theoretical approaches to leadershipThe Trait Approach (1920-1930)Leaders characteristics are different from non-leadersThe Behavioural Approach (1950s)Behaviour leaders engage inThe Contingency Approach (1970s) Takes the situation into accountNew Leadership ApproachesTrait approach: no consistent findings at the time, because the construct studied were not named properly, so people were using terms interchangeably. Also, only focus on productivity as outcome, no other processes or aspectsBehavioural approach: Ohio state university studies= initiating structure : organisation and definition of group, assigning tasks, planning ahead getting things done= consideration : trust, respect, warmth concern for group members well being

Although this generated a lot of new studies the following criticism can be appliedInconsistent findings based on questionnaire measures only

Contingency approach: Take the whole situation into account for leadershipFiedler was the first guyHersey & Blanchard would suggest that to a certain situation only a certain type of leadership is successful this includes characteristics of the surrounding environment but also of the staff members.

The new leadership, we will discuss in more detail as research has been done suing these theories in relation to safety7Leadership and Safety: What do we know?Leadership style has an impact on safety (e.g. Kelloway, Mullen & Francis, 2006; Clarke & Ward, 2006)Two examples The full range leadership model (Bass, 1985)Leader-member exchange (Dansereau, Cashman, & Graen, 1973)

8We do know that leadership influences safety outcomes, especially from the organisational level

Leadership and Safety: The full range of Leadership Model (Bass, 1985)Transformational LeadershipTransactional leadershipLaissez Faire Leadership9Full range, also known as transac/transfo

But: Bass, intended these blocks to build upon each otherLeadership and Safety: The full range of Leadership Model (Bass, 1985)Transformational LeadershipTransactional leadershipLaissez Faire LeadershipLowest level of leadershipAbsence of leadership10Leader does not respond, does not give feedback, instructions anythingLeadership and Safety: The full range of Leadership Model (Bass, 1985)Transformational LeadershipTransactional leadershipLaissez Faire LeadershipContingent rewardManagement by exception11Coningent reward: leader makes clear what will be rewardedMbex active and passive differ due to the timing of the leaders intervention

Management by exception active; active monitoring for anticipation of errors and mistakes

MBEX passive: only after you have done an error the leader will let you know that this is not how you will achieve a goal. Leadership and Safety: The full range of Leadership Model (Bass, 1985)Transformational LeadershipTransactional leadershipLaissez Faire LeadershipIdealised influenceInspirational motivationIntellectual stimulationIndividualised consideration12Idealised influence: leaders emphasise trust, take stands on difficult issues, emphasise the importance of commitment and purpose and are aware of the ethical consequences of their decisionsInspirational motivation: leaders articulate a vision of the future, challenge followers, with high standards, talk optimistically with enthusiasm, and provide encouragement and meaning for what needs to be done

Intellectual stimulation: Leaders question old assumptions, values and beliefs, stimulate new ways of doing things, and encourage expressions of ideas and reasoning

Individual consideration: leaders deal with others as individuals consider individuals needs abilities and aspirations. Listen attentively and advice, coach and teach

The full range of Leadership Model and SafetyTransformational Leadership Safety (e.g. Zohar, 2002)Laissez faire leadership Safety(e.g. Zohar, 2002)The effects of transformational leadership style on performance are stronger in maximum contexts (Lim & Ployhart, 2004).+-13

Leadership and Safety: Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)(Danserau, Graen & Haga, 1975)LMX focuses on the relation of the leader to each of their followersFollowers are divided into in-group and out-group membersTask of the leader: drive the relationship from a tentative first stage to a deeper more meaningful one14Leaders adopt different behaviours with individual subordinates The particular behaviour patterns of the leader develops over time

Most theories so far have emphasized leadership from the POV of the leader (trait and style) or the follower and the context (situational, contingency). This takes another approach, leadership as a process centered on interactions between leaders and followersPreviously, leadership was something leaders DID to followers, averaged their style across all people.this focuses on the individual relationship the leader has with each of his/her followers. All are special. All relationships are snowflakes.

Leader Member ExchangeLF1LF4LF5LF6LF3LF2In GroupOut Group15Initially- 1 vertical dyad. Leader forms special individual relationships with all subordinates. Each has its own characteristicsWithin a work unit, subordinates become part of the in-group or the out-group depending on how well they work with the leader and how well the leader works with them. Personality, role, whether they go beyond their formal role expectations, new responsibilities and different challenges makes you in-crowd. In group is more influential, confidence gets more info, and social interaction, in group does extra things for leader and vice versaHigh quality LMX related to better outcomes- less employee turnover, more positive perf evals, higher frequency of promotion, greater org commitment, more desireable work assignments, better ob attitudes, more attention and support from the leader, greater participation, faster career progression

Being in the in-group is beneficial, out group only does what their org reqires of them, no special attention

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Safety

LMX safety citizenship behaviour LMX safety citizenship role definitionsThese relations are moderated by safety climate(Hofmann, Morgeson & Gerras, 2003) ++16So far, Leadership has been established as related to safety at lower organisational levels

What about Senior level leadership?

17Are Senior managers positions different?

18Senior managers are the people right at the top of the organisation that carry the ultimate responsibility. Their workplaces are described as highly complex and challenging.Katz and Kahn (1978): senior managers manage organisational boundaries (internal and external systematic perspective). Maintaining the vitality and the adaptability of their organisation in the context of shifting demands and contingencies from the environment.

ATM brief introduction: The guys in the towers and other centres that control the airspace on airports and areas. Air navigation service providers offer this service and are focused on in this project

Aviation is a high reliability industry (Weick)worldwide rate of fatal accidents for public transport operations is only 0.2 per million flying hours (UK Civil Aviation Authority, accessed August 2009). Air traffic management contributes a major part to the safety that is provided to all users of the airspace, with an accident contribution factor of only 4% (EUROCONTROL, Safety Regulation Commission document, 2005).

Senior Managers and SafetySenior Managers:change and improve existing corporate culture (German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation, 2004)One of the most frequent employed safety climate factors (Guldenmund, 2000)Commitment is one of the main drivers of employees safety performance (Michael, Evans, Jansen & Haight, 2005)

Only 5% of leadership literature focuses on senior management (Horn & Zaccaro, 2003)19

Can interpersonal theories also be applied to senior leadership?Executive leaders operate at a system wide and indirect level and in some cases never meet all their followers Interpersonal theories of leadership do not readily apply to executive forms of influence Horn & Zaccaro (2003) Zaccaro (2001) Strategic Leadership research should focus on the substance in relation to leadership Day &Lord (1988)20Day and Lord (1988) argue to focus on the substance in relation to leadership (p. 459), which should include the leaders analytical and pe


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