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  • Modern Life and LeadershipWorkplace Spirituality Buddhist Ethics and CSR|

    Heritage Preservation & Site DevelopmentHassle Free Pilgrimage Social Entrepreneurship|

    LIVING BUDDHISTLEADERSHIP

    ROADMAP ON

    Confluence of Service Industry(Govt. - Corporate - NRI's Business Interface)

    www.icsiindia.inSince 1994

    Part 1 BUDDHISM : A SURVEY(BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVES ON PERSONAL FULFILMENT AND WORKPLACE HARMONY)

    Concept paper by Satinder Dhiman to be published in the forthcoming Palgrave Macmillan Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Fulfilment 2018

    & FACILITATING INBOUND BUDDHIST PILGRIMS & DEVELOPMENT OF BUDDHIST TOURISM

    Heritage Site Development & Capacity Building towards Entrepreneurial and Employment Opportunities

    FRAMEWORK FOR ENHANCING Part 2

    Wednesday, 10th January 2018The Park Hotel, Connaught Place, New Delhi

  • BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVES ON PERSONAL FULFILLMENT AND WORKPLACE

    HARMONY 1

    Satinder Dhiman

    Satinder.Dhiman@woodbury.edu

    ABSTRACT

    This chapter examines the Buddhist perspectives on personal fulfillment and workplace

    harmony. Buddhism is an art of living based on the science of mind (Yeshe, 2008). First, the

    chapter will present an overview of the Buddhas life and his essential teachings based on the

    Pli canon, which preeminent scholars such as Carrithers (1988), Bodhi (2005, 2012, 2106,

    2017), Rahula (1974), Nanamoli (1992/2001), Narada (2008), Nhat Hanh (2008), Nyanaponika

    (1962/1996), Nyanatiloka (2000), and Thanissaro (2005) consider the foundation for all existing

    streams of Buddhist teaching and practice through the centuries. It will provide an overview of

    the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism (the doctrine of the Elders) on such key topics as

    the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, the Three Empirical Marks of Existence (suffering,

    impermanence, and not-self), and the principle of Dependent Origination.

    After presenting its origin and essentials teachings, the chapter will briefly review Buddhist

    philosophy and psychology and its contribution in the quest for happiness and fulfillment at the

    individual and organizational level. The chapter will conclude with essential pointers and

    1 2018 Dr. Satinder Dhiman. Based on authors chapter in a forthcoming Palgrave Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Fulfillment 2018. Satinder Dhiman, PhD, EdD, MBA, MCOM, serves as Associate Dean, Chair, and Director of the MBA Program and Professor of Management at Woodbury Universitys School of Business, Burbank, California, USA. He holds a PhD in Social Sciences (Buddhist Psychology) from Tilburg University, Netherlands; a Doctorate in Organizational Leadership from Pepperdine University, Los Angeles; an MBA from West Coast University, Los Angeles; and an MCOM (with the gold medal) from Panjab University, India. He has also completed advanced Executive Leadership programs at the Harvard, Stanford, and Wharton. Author, co-author, and co-editor of 17 books, his most recent books include Holistic Leadership: A New Paradigm for Todays Leaders (Palgrave, 2017), Gandhi and Leadership: New Horizons in Exemplary Leadership (Palgrave, 2015), and Seven Habits of Highly Fulfilled People (Personhood Press, 2012).

    mailto:Satinder.Dhiman@woodbury.edu

  • practices based on Buddhist psychology that contribute to individual and organizational well-

    being and fulfillment, incorporating views from nine in-depth, structured interviews conducted

    by the author.

    Keywords: Theravada Buddhism; Buddhist Psychology; Personal Happiness and Fulfillment;

    Workplace Well-ness and Flourishing

    BUDDHISM: ITS ORIGIN, PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY

    INTRODUCTION

    Buddhism is an art of living based on the science of mind (Yeshe, 2008). Adherents of Buddhism

    (or Buddha Dharma, as Buddhist prefer to call it) like to point out that Buddhism is not a religion

    in the traditional sense with a creator God who punishes and rewards but rather a Do-It-

    YourselfArt-and-Science-of-Mind that is built upon the very experiences of our life here and

    now (Dalai Lama, 2005). There are no articles of faith in Buddhism and no commandments to

    follow beyond the apperception of things as they truly are, the law of cause and effect, and the

    understanding that we are the creatures of our thoughts, the products of our mind.

    This chapter examines the Buddhist perspectives on personal fulfillment and workplace

    harmony. Buddhism is an art of living based on the science of mind (Yeshe, 2008).

    First, the chapter will present an overview of the Buddhas life and his essential teachings

    based on the Pli canon, which preeminent scholars such as Carrithers (1988), Bodhi (2005,

    2012, 2106, 2017), Rahula (1974), Nanamoli (1992/2001), Narada (2008), Nhat Hanh (2008),

    Nyanaponika (1962/1996), Nyanatiloka (2000), and Thanissaro (2005) consider the foundation

    for all existing streams of Buddhist teaching and practice through the centuries. It will provide an

    overview of the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism (the doctrine of the Elders) on such

  • key topics as the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, the Three Empirical Marks of Existence

    (suffering, impermanence, and not-self), and the principle of Dependent Origination.

    After presenting its origin and essentials teachings, the chapter will briefly review

    Buddhist philosophy and psychology and its contribution in the quest for happiness and

    fulfillment at the individual and organizational level. The chapter will conclude with essential

    pointers and practices based on Buddhist psychology that contribute to individual and

    organizational well-being and fulfillment, incorporating views from nine in-depth, structured

    interviews conducted by the author.

    THE BUDDHA: A BRIEF HISTORY

    When we study Buddhism, we are studying ourselves, the nature of our own minds. Instead of focusing on a supreme being, Buddhism emphasizes more practical matter[s], such as how to lead our lives, how to integrate our minds, and how to keep our everyday lives peaceful and healthy. In other words, Buddhism always accentuates experiential knowledge-wisdom, rather than some dogmatic view. In fact, we dont even consider Buddhism to be a religion in the usual sense of the term. ~Lama Yeshe,1998, p. 7. Most of reliable Indian history actually begins with the Buddhas life (Nanamoli, 1992;

    Thanissaro, 1996; Bodhi, 2005, 2012, 2016, 2017), for it is only from the Buddhas time on that

    there is enough detail offered to enable reliability in the writings about particular kings and states

    (Carrithers, 1988). The Buddha lived from about 566 B.C.E. (Before Christ) to about 486 B.C.E.

    (Gethin, 1998). While there is some ambiguity among scholars about the dates mentioned above,

    most of them generally agree about the key events of the Buddhas mature life: he left home at

    the age of 29 in search of a solution to the common human plight, attained awakening at the age

    of 35, and died at the ripe age of 80, having taught for 45 years (Gombrich, 1988, 2008; Gyatso,

    1995; Nanamoli, 1992)

  • Buddha is not a name but an honorific title, meaning Awakened One one who has

    woken up from the slumber of metaphysical ignorance. The title is generally applied by the

    Buddhist tradition to a class of beings who are, from the perspective of humanity, extremely rare

    and quite extraordinary. In contrast to these Buddhas or awakened ones, the mass of humanity

    is asleepasleep in the sense that they sleepwalk through their lives never knowing and seeing

    the worlds reality as is (yath-bhtam). A Buddha on the other hand has been awakened to

    the knowledge of the world as it really is and in so doing finds release from suffering (Gethin,

    1998). Gethin (1998) clarifies that the Buddhas life story, according to Buddhist tradition, can

    neither be classified as history nor as myth. It might therefore be best to just let this story to

    speak for itself.

    The Awakened One was born in a wealthy family as Siddhartha (Sanskrit for he-who-

    had-all-his-wishes/aims-fulfilled: Siddha artha iti Siddhratha) and family name Gautama (the-

    most-victorious-one). His father was the king of the Shkya (Sanskrit, capacity/ability) clan,

    and his mother, called My (illusionliterally, that which is not: y m s my). Because it

    was predicted shortly after Siddhartas birth that he would become a sage or some great leader,

    his father, who wanted Siddharta to be his successor, kept him in royal isolation to prevent

    external influences.

    Yet, as a young man, Siddharta became restless and undertook trips to the world outside

    the palace of pleasure, where he got confronted with sickness, old age, and death. He

    subsequently renounced his luxurious life and became an ascetic. However, after seven years of

    severe physical deprivation, he realized that this, too, was not a wholesome way of living. Thus,

    in his mid-thirties, Siddharta set himself down, cleared his mind from temptatious, destructive,

    and renunciation thoughts, and began to sit and practice what is now known as Vipassana (a term

  • that appeared only later in the 5th century in Buddhagoshas Visuddhi-maggathe Path of

    Purification) or insight meditation as he gained the insight in Dependent Origination and

    not-self. Thus, he saw and understood the illusion behind ego, or I-me-mine-self, and the

    Buddhist rea

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