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In a world where change is a constant thing, different views on different things undeniably arise. Despite the differences in perspectives, in culture, in gender, in administration and even in the environment any modification or alteration in the society a certain group of individuals still manage to share simmilarities and similar, if not identical, views regarding certain aspects of society. Those individuals who have the same belief form groups to prmote3 and advocate the beliefs and ideals they deem relevant and necessary for society. May it be for gender, political affiliation or religious affiliation, these group of people sought to find their rightful place in the society where they can freely express their ideas and protect their people as well as the people in the community. However, forming groups to talk about their beliefs and leave things to inetellectual conversations did not seem that appealing to those individuals who are hungry for change and reformation. And that is where they start to mobilize their groups ande turn them into movements, social movements, that would bring forth the change thart they look for.Social movements push for a set of preference of social change within a population. According to the American Journal of Sociology, a social movement is a set of opinions and beliefs in a population which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure and/or reward distribution of a society. And as social movements grow, they face dilemmas that trigger their organization. That is the focus of this paper the mobilization of social movements.Using the Resource Mobilization Theory (RMT), this paper will examine the variety of resources that each organization mobilizes, the relationship of such social movements with other organizations, their dependence among external support for success, and the interference of the authority or the government in controlling or incorporating such movements. Also, the paper will focus on the variety and sources of the social movements resources and if necessary, the movements connection or relationship to the media. Is the organization a member of a bigger organization? Does the organization depend upon external support for success? Does the government use tactics to control or incorporate their movement? RMT also involves adherents, constituents and bystanders. As a key analytical issue of the theory, this paper will also focus on how social movements turn bystanders into adherents and adherents into constituents and ultimately mobilize constiuents to active participation and their continued involvement in the movement. How do organizations turn non- adherents into adherents and maintain the support of their constituents? This paper will also see why such social movements succeed or fail. What are the reasons behind the success of such organizations?
The world is entailed of different social movements that live with their own encompassing ideologies and beliefs with regards to the current situation of the society and have their particular means of achieving their goals. Social movement refers to a deliberate, voluntary effort to organize individuals to act in concert to achieve enough group influence to make or block changes and it includes a power-oriented groups rather than participation-oriented movements, meaning that the group actions of social movements are not necessarily of primary benefit to individual members, but instead serve the groups larger goals. [footnoteRef:1]Traditionally, it argues that social movements form from the personal grievances that arise from structural and social change, members are trying to change the status quo in any means regarding of their beliefs and stand. These kind of organizations have relationship with distinct institutions in the society like the media and religion, its relationship with the people, with this, sociologists study the participation, connection and ties of these on the various social movements. There are two types of members belonging to social movement organizations: conscience constituents and beneficiary constituents and social movements often needs and get resources from conscience constituents which refer to individuals or groups outside of the social movement who have a moral alliance with the social movements cause, goal, or mission. Past analysis of social movements and social movement organizations has normally assumed a close link between the frustrations or grievances of a collectively of actors and the growth and decline of movement activity. [footnoteRef:2] As multifactorial model of social movement has been improved and the diversion of focus from the reasons why people participate to the increase grievances of individuals, social movement was analysed, being advanced and the use of resources, mobilizing it is one of the things that can explain why social movements are formed and continue to grow or the other way around, a theory that seeks these explanations is what commonly called the Resource Mobilization Theory (RMT). It is included in the different interdisciplinary history of social movement theory that includes six main areas of study: resource mobilization theory, mass society theory, relative deprivation theory, structural-strain theory, value added theory, and new social movement theory. The RMT started on the late 1960s in McCarthy and Zalds work in their theory of entrepreneurial mobilization which critically assessed the interpretation of social movements in this years together with the relevance of the Olson theory where collective action was specified. This theory is used as the theoretical framework of social movement and utilized by sociologist to explain the characteristics and outcomes of the social movement that examines the structural factors, availability of resources and the stand of every group on socio-political issues in order to analyse the success and failure of a social movement. The resource mobilization theory of social movements holds that a social movement arises from long-term changes in a groups organization, available resources, and opportunities for group action. Resource mobilization theory has five main principles (Jenkins, 1983): [1: Simone I. Fynn] [2: John McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory, The American Journal of Sociology, vol. 82, no. 26 (May, 1997) : 1212 1218.]
1. The actions of social movements members and participants are rational.2. A social movements actions are strongly influenced by institutionalized power imbalances and conflicts of interest.3. These power imbalances and conflicts of interest are sufficient to generate grievances that lead to the mobilization of social movements intent on changing the distribution of resources and organization.4. Centralized and formally structured social movements more effectively mobilize resources and achieve goals of change than decentralized and informal social movements.5. The success of social movements is heavily influenced by group strategy and the political climate.As Klandermans, in the year 1984 wrote social movements is a rational behaviour, based on an individuals conclusions about the costs and benefits of participation, rather than one born of a psychological predisposition to marginality and discontent. Resource mobilization theory views social movements as normal, rational, institutionally rooted political challenges by aggrieved groups. The border between conventional politics and social movements thus becomes blurred, but does not disappear altogether. [footnoteRef:3] [3: M. Manosmita, et al., Beyond Resource Mobilization Theory: Dynamic Paradigm of Chengara Struggle, Department of Sociology (Pondicherry University, India, 2012), 29 35.]
McCarthy and Zald summarize the emerging perspective by contrasting resource mobilization theory with the traditional one as follows;1. Support baseA. Traditional. Social movements are based upon aggrieved populations which provide the necessary resources and labour. Al-though case studies may mention external supports, they are not incorporated as central analytic components.B. Resource mobilization. Social movements may or may not be based upon the grievances of the presumed beneficiaries. Con-science constituents, individual and organizational, may provide major sources of support. And in some cases supporters-those who provide money, facilities, and even labour-may have no commitment to the values that underlie specific movements.
2. Strategy and tactics A. Traditional. Social movement leaders use bargaining, persuasion, or violence to influence authorities to change. Choices of tactics depend upon prior history of relations with authorities, relative success of previous encounters, and ideology. Tactics are also influenced by the oligarchization and institutionalization of organizational life.
B. Resource mobilization. The concern with interaction between movements and authorities is accepted, but it is also noted that social movement organizations have a number of strategic tasks. These include mobilizing supporters, neutralizing and/or transforming mass and elite publics into sympathizers, achieving change in targets. Dilemmas occur in the choice of tactics, since what may achieve one aim may conflict with behaviour aimed at achieving another. Moreover, tactics are influenced by inter-organizational competition and cooperation.
3. Relation to larger society A. Traditional. Case studies have emphasized the effects of the environment upon movement organizations, especially with respect to goal change, but have ignored, for the most part, ways in which such movement organizations can utilize the environment for their own purposes (see Perrow 1972). This has probably been largely result of the lack of comparative organizational focus inherent in case studies. In analytical studies emphasis is upon