restoration restoration. the restoration was not a foregone conclusion when cromwell died
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The Restoration was not a foregone conclusion when Cromwell died.
When the Rump returned the Commonwealth was revived.They quarrelled with the army.People feared a return of armed conflict.
Richard Cromwell did not have a close relationship with the army.He favoured civilian power rather than military power.
Richard Cromwells Parliament met in January 1659.He was forced to resign by April so his tenure as Lord Protector was VERY short !The govts that followed were not successful
Radicals were hopeful of a return to godly ruleRoyalists responded through uprisings eg Booths Rebellion.General John Lambert put these down.Army in England was divided over what to do also bickering about being unpaid.
General George Monck commanded the New Model Army in ScotlandHe marched his well disciplined army to London.He could have been another Cromwell
Moncks Smart MovesMonck showed caution and a lot of political skill when he arrived in London.He had already convinced Army leaders to readmit Rump in Dec 1659He negotiated with several groups during Jan-Mar 1660 and eventually made deal reversing Prides Purge.These MPs outvoted Rumpers dissolved PMT and called for general elections
People of London showed their support for elections by roasting rumps around the city.While call for new elections was strong Monck opened negotiations with Charles Stuart in exile in Netherlands.
Declaration of BredaApril 1660 Charles issues Decl. of Breda act of reassurance over restoration of monarchy.Smart political move as he dealt with tension without making too many promisesOfferedPardon to those who fought against himDegree of religious tolerationTo discuss land confiscation issueBack-pay owing to Moncks soldiers and offered them service in Royal army
New elections were heldThe new Convention Parliament declared for Charles ll on the 8th May.Charles re-entered England on the 25th May.
What was Restored?The settlement created by Convention PMT and enforced by Cavalier PMT represented a return to situation of 1641 after first session of Long PMT when machinery of personal rule was dismantled.Charles II was welcomed back with enthusiasm but there was a strong desire to make sure the personal rule used by his father did not return
The King was head of government againHe could appoint civil servants, bishops, military commanders, peers, baronets and knights.King also head of restored Anglican Church, incl. bishops and Book of Common Prayer.
Charles ll was also supreme commander of the army under the Militia Acts of 1661 and 1662This had been one of the causes of his fathers execution
House of Lords restored alongside CommonsBut the House of Commons was still subject to his vetoCharles ll was still dependent on Parliament and the ruling class to perform their role as unpaid bureaucrats.
Role of traditional governing class restored as government decentralised.Triennial Act restored PMT had to be called every three years.The monarchy was well and truly back. The situation was basically the same as it was in 1641 at the end of the first session of Long PMT.
What was not Restored?Prerogative courts Star Chamber and Court of High CommissionFinance remained issue for Charles IILeadership style of Charles I did not survive in his son Charles II much more flexible and astute where his father was stubborn and at times, nave.
However, not everything was sorted out.
The very issues that had started the Civil War the relationship between PMT and King was still unclear.The King being given back control of armed forces and militia seemed a bit trusting after what his father had done perhaps this is an indication of how badly they wanted the monarchy back.
Charles was always short of money though he was granted an annual sum of 1.2 million poundsIt was intended to make the crown independent of PMT but it didnt work out that wayIt wasnt enough to cope with demandsPaying off ArmyPoor harvestsWar with DutchRecovering from fire of 1666
Clarendon CodeClarendon Code was a series of Acts designed to help enforce the new religious order.Despite Charles IIs assurances in Decl. of Breda, restored Anglican Church was far from tolerant any deviation from Anglican worship now seen as threat to govt.Named after Edward Hyde chief minister to Charles II
Clarendon Code description
Who was Clarendon?Earl of Clarendon, Edward Hyde leader of moderates who supported Charles I after PMT spilt in 1641He had a touchy relationship with Charles II (wasnt as free-spirited as the new king)
Religious issue settled?NO !Almost 2000 ministers gave up their jobs rather than accept new Act of Uniformity.Survey in 1676 suggested around 100,000 Protestants remained outside Anglican church.Ch II issued Decl. of Indulgence 1662 ( Ch had promised toleration, but was faced with PMT intent on removing dissension
Restoration and InterregnumThe Restoration was a reaction to the Interregnum and the experiments of government.Civilian goevernment returned - rule by army was not popularRole of army was downsized nowNew church very keen to get rid of dissention (toleration)
No repeats please The Restoration was designed to prevent the conditions of civil war from occurring again.It achieved this in the first instance, but in reality, the main issues remained unresolved.
Still an enormous amount of work to be done convincing people that restoration was a GOOD idea !!!!Wanting the Restoration and actually getting it done were two very different things.The Commonwealth was the other name for the Republic that had been brought about by the execution of the King and the Rump PMTs abolition of the monarchy Commonwealth and Republic can be used interchangeably.Rump PMT at this stage still sympathetic to Army, but by now everybody was arguingRichard had a great deal LESS prestige than his father. Also fact that he favoured civilian authority over military would have cost him any Army support he did have.Diff btw him and his Dad was that OC OWED a lot of his success to the army Richard probably didnt feel the same way.
Godly reformation the Puritans wanted more and more reforms. Other Religious extreme sects incl Ranters and 5th Monarchists had a lot of support from rank and file in the armySuccessive govts were Apr-Oct 50 members of the Rump that Cromwell had dissolved in 1653 ruled EngOct-Dec Committee of Safety in charge = small group of army officers thinly disguised military dictatorshipDec 1659 Rump reinstated after pressure from MonckLambert was one of the major generals. Still unpopular after their failed experiment in govt The Royalists werent happy with FURTHER reform so started uprisings (Booths rebellion)He had enough support / loyalty to become next Cromwell, and like Cromwell craved order and stability, but he favoured civilian authority.Could be argued that he was most powerful man in England at this time.Important that elections process used as opposed to nominations during Protectorate*Ironic that it was Army General that played such important role in bringing Ch II back to England when it was an Army General who led the call to execute his father !!!Fear of Charles I using Army against PMT led to him being refused his own standing army