report on 2013 earthquake and tsunami
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A REPORT ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT
AREPORT ONDISASTER MANAGEMENT
Submitted To:- Submitted By:- Mrs. KUMUD TAWAR PRAVEEN KUMAR SHARMA MECHANICAL:-C2 (Vth SEM) Roll no:- 12EJGME738
DEPARTMENT OF DISASTER MANAGEMENTacknowledgementI take this opportunity to express my thanks to my guide/ teacher Mrs. KUMUD TAWAR in preparing my report on disaster management . It was their constant encouragement that led to the completion of this report . I thereby also like to give words of thanks to my friends who help In this report .
Praveen Kumar SharmaTOPIC2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
INTRODUCTIONDisaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society. Disasters involve widespread human, material, economic or environmental impacts, which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.Any disaster can interrupt essential services, such as health care, electricity, water, sewage/garbage removal, transportation and communications. The interruption can seriously affect the health, social and economic networks of local communities and countries. Disasters have a major and long-lasting impact on people long after the immediate effect has been mitigated. Poorly planned relief activities can have a significant negative impact not only on the disaster victims but also on donors and relief agencies. So it is important that physical therapists join established programmes rather than attempting individual efforts.Types of disasters
Four main types of disaster are:- 1. Natural disasters:-including floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that have immediate impacts on human health and secondary impacts causing further death and suffering from (for example) floods, landslides, fires, tsunamis.2. Environmental emergencies:-including technological or industrial accidents, usually involving the production, use or transportation of hazardous material, and occur where these materials are produced, used or transported, and forest fires caused by humans.3. Complex emergencies:- involving a break-down of authority, looting and attacks on strategic installations, including conflict situations and war.4. Pandemic emergencies:-involving a sudden onset of contagious disease that affects health, disrupts services and businesses, brings economic and social costs.
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami picture EARTHQUAKEAnearthquake(also known as aquake,tremorortemblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the earths crustthat createsseismic waves. Theseismicity ,seismic activityof an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.Earthquakes are measured using observations fromseismometers. Themoment magnitudeis the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe.The largest earthquakes in historic times have been of magnitude slightly over 9, although there is no limit to the possible magnitude.
TSUNAMIThe termtsunamicomes from the Japanese, composed of the two tsu means harbour " and nami , means "wave". Tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, generally an ocean or alarge lake.Earthquakes,volcanic eruptionsand otherunderwater explosions(including detonations of under water nuclear devices), landslides,glacier calving's,meteorite impactsand other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami..the2004 Indian Ocean tsunamiwas among the deadliest and most published natural disasters in human history with at least 290,000 people, including tourists from all over the world killed or missing in 14 countries bordering theIndian Ocean.
The2004 Indian Ocean earthquakewas anunder seamega thrust earthquakethat occurred at 00:58:53UTCon Sunday, 26 December 2004, with anepicenteroff the west coast ofSumatra, Indonesia. The quake itself is known by the scientific communityas theSumatraAndaman earthquake.The resultingtsunamiwas given various names, including the2004 Indian Ocean tsunami,South Asian tsunami,Indonesian tsunami, theChristmas tsunamiand theBoxing Daytsunami.2004 INDIANTSUNAMI(26 DEC 2004)Characteristics of 2004 tsunami
NOAA's tsunami travel time (TTT) map for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The TTT map calculates the first-arrival travel times of the tsunami, following their generation at the earthquake epicenter
Map contours represent :- Red indicates 1-4 hour arrival times Yellow indicates 5-6 hour arrival times Green indicates 7-14 hour arrival times Blue indicates 15-21 hour arrival timesRadarsatellites recorded the heights of tsunami waves in deep water: at two hours after the earthquake, the maximum height was 60 centimeter (2ft.). These are the first such observations ever made
Causes of 2004 Indian tsunamiThe earthquake was caused when the Indian Plate was sub ducted by the Burma Plate and triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean.The Indian Plate is part of the great Indo-Australian Plate, which underlies the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, and is drifting north-east at an average of 6 centimeters per year (2.4 inches per year). The India Plate meets the Burma Plate at the Sunder Trench.At this point the India Plate sub ducts beneath the Burma Plate, which carries the Nicobar Islands the Andaman Islands, and northern Sumatra. The India Plate sinks deeper and deeper beneath the Burma Plate until the increasing temperature and pressure drive volatiles out of the sub ducting plate. These volatiles rise into the overlying plate causing partial melting and the formation of magma. The rising magma intrudes into the crust above and exits the Earth's crust through volcanoes in the form of a volcanic arc.Origin of 2004 Indian tsunamiThe 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake came just three days after a magnitude 8.1 earthquake in an uninhabited region west of New Zealand's sub Antarctic Auckland Islands, and north of Australia's Macquarie Island.
On the morning of December 26, 2004, at 7:59am local Sumatra time (0:59am Greenwich mean time) an earthquake occurred off the coast of Sumatra, measuring 9.15 on the Richter scale. The largest earthquake in four decades, it produced a powerful tsunami that struck Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand particularly hard, killing about 227,000 people in 14 countries and leaving 2 million displaced and 1.8 million homeless.
Speed and moment magnitudeof tsunamiThehypocenter of the main earthquake was approximately 160km (100mi) off the western coast of northern Sumatra, in the Indian Ocean just north ofSimeulueisland at a depth of 30km (19mi) below meansea level(initially reported as 10km (6.2mi)). The northern section of theSunda mega thrust ruptured over a length of 1,300km (810mi).The earthquake (followed by the tsunami) was felt simultaneously inBangladesh,India ,Malaysia,Myanmar,Thailand,Singaporeand theMaldives.Splay faults, or secondary "pop up faults", caused long, narrow parts of the sea floor to pop up in seconds. This quickly elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, causing the complete destruction of the nearby Indonesian town ofLhoknga.With amagnitudeof Mw9.19.3, it is thethird largest earthquakeever recorded on aseismograph.The earthquake had the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between 8.3 and 10minutes.It caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimeter (0.4 inches) and triggered other earthquakes as far away asAlaska.
Its epicenter was between Simeulueand mainland Indonesia.The plight of theaffected people and countriesprompted a worldwidehumanitarian response. In all, the worldwide community donated more than $14 billion (2004 US$) in humanitarian aid.Countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake Indonesia(mainly inAceh) Sri Lanka India(mostly inTamil Nadu) Thailand Maldives Somalia
Myanmar Malaysia Seychellesand others.Many other countries, especially Australia and those in Europe, had large numbers of citizens traveling in the region on holiday.Swedenlost 543 citizens in the disaster, whileGermanyhad 539 identified victims.
Death toll and casualties
According to theU.S. Geological Surveya total of 227,898 people died (see table below for details).Measured in lives lost, this is one of the tenworst earthquakes in recorded history, as well as the single worst tsunami in history. Indonesia was the worst affected area, with most death toll estimates at around 170,000.However, another report bySiti Fadilah Supari, the Indonesian Minister of Health at the time, estimated the death total to be as high as 220,000 in Indonesia alone, giving a total of 280,000 casualties.The tsunami caused serious damage and deaths as far as the east coast of Africa, eight people in South Africa died due to abnormally high sea levels and waves.Relief agencies reported that one-third of the dead appeared to be children. This was a result of the high proportion of children in the