Real World Challenges in Communicating Governance Reform Ethiopia, June 2007 Paul Mitchell Development Communication Division The World Bank.
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Real World Challenges in Communicating Governance Reform Ethiopia, June 2007 Paul Mitchell Development Communication Division The World Bank Slide 2 External Affairs Vice Presidency Scaling up Communications for Operational Results Development Communicatio n Institutional Communicatio n Advocacy Communicatio n Communicating what we do and how we do it; building trust in the institution and support for development. Issue campaigns to accelerate action on key global public goods including at the country level Integrating communications and assessing political and development risks for more effective strategy and design leading to better outcomes Internal Communicatio n Creating a common platform for messages and programs Slide 3 External Affairs Vice Presidency Communication in Governance Several Approaches: Political risks around the governance issue in country Communication component in governance projects Public Sphere Communication as a sector in governance Slide 4 External Affairs Vice Presidency Public Sphere Entry point for discussion about governance in a country: Mediates between society and the state. Ability of state to address and listen to citizens; citizens to form interest groups; free media; Embedded in an environment that gives actors rights, duties and opportunities. Slide 5 External Affairs Vice Presidency Power of Media in Development Local media, particularly radio, carry information & encourage commerce in geographically isolated markets Growing global media can move currency markets and international trade Can provide info on political markets, exposing corrupt and unethical politicians and giving people platform to voice diverse opinions on governance and reform Can inform poor and marginalized people, giving them a voice With higher literacy rates, lower printing costs, and new broadcast technologies, media can reach even further Slide 6 External Affairs Vice Presidency Role of Media: Improving Governance The media acts as the disseminator of information about government - expenditures, laws, right and obligations of citizens etc.and can also make transparent the information that government sends or puts out. It also acts as watchdog on government It plays the important role of providing information to enable informed audiences who can then participate in development policy discussions (National Plans, CAS) - it carries that information both about process and content The media is useful in building trust in institutions (like the WB) and faith in the product (development) Slide 7 External Affairs Vice Presidency Fighting Corruption: Another Look Anti-corruption: Rely on legal and financial institutions judiciary, police, financial auditorsto enforce and enhance accountability in the public sector. However, in many poor countries, these institutions are weak and among the most corrupt A complementary approach takes the users of public services as a starting point. Rather than attempting to increase service providers accountability to policymakers alone, the idea is to also engage citizens at the bottom of the public service delivery chain by providing them with easy access to information on the workings of public programs intended for their benefit In this way, citizens will be empowered to demand certain standards and monitor and challenge abuses by officials they interact with in their daily lives Improving public access to information is a crucial part in this bottom-up strategy Slide 8 External Affairs Vice Presidency Empowered Communication Environment Communication as sector: Reform government communication Parliamentary communication Decentralized communication Improve functioning of private media The legal environment for communication How do people receive information Slide 9 External Affairs Vice Presidency Empowered Communication Environment contd The market to support media and communication Civil society Academia Social media and the citizen journalist New technology Slide 10 External Affairs Vice Presidency Defining Political Risk effective political risk analysis is not just a question of evaluating a country risk. Instead, risk assessment must identify the implications of social, political and economic conditions of each particular development intervention. The key to analyzing the political risks facing a project is to identify the winners and losers and assess their relative ability to help or hinder a project, whether directly or by influencing others. Slide 11 External Affairs Vice Presidency Slide 12 Political risks are highly CONTEXTUAL Issue Time Place Who is involved External environment Slide 13 External Affairs Vice Presidency Dimensions of political risk Who is involved? What influence can they exert? Will they use it and to what degree? What impact will it have? Slide 14 External Affairs Vice Presidency Political risk is DYNAMIC Unlike other analysis financial, social, environmental Non-financial risk analysis can change very quickly Slide 15 External Affairs Vice Presidency Political risk and communication A presidential view If we want to he helpful to governments it is important to understand the political environment in which they are operating. Another area for communication is how to improve the Banks ability to understand and navigate the political circumstances of the world we live in and work with political analysis and risk assessment. Paul Wolfowitz, President World Bank, May 2006 CommNet Forum Slide 16 External Affairs Vice Presidency The cost of not communicating Hydro Quebec estimated that the lack of adequate communication with indigenous peoples regarding their hydropower scheme in North Quebec, led to controversies that caused projects delays of over 20 years, costing the company an estimated US$ 278 million Presentation by John Paul Murdoch, Legal Counsel Cree Nation, Hydro-Quebec, World Bank Energy Week 2005. Slide 17 External Affairs Vice Presidency Project Cycle PRSP & CAS Identification PreparationAppraisalApprovalEvaluation Implementation Country Portfolio Review Analysis Communication Program Performance and Impact Evaluation Strategy and Communication Component Design Client Survey Project Cycle Phase DevComm Program Phase Communication Based Assessment Socio Political Risk Assessment Consultation schemes Public Opinion Research Project Document Inputs Communication Program Implementation Plan Capacity building Technical Assistance Advice Supervision Interventions and Products KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTS Communication Program Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation Research Slide 18 External Affairs Vice Presidency Communication Audit Assesses Communication Needs for an Initiative Identifies roadblocks for a project/initiative, evaluates opponents strategies Analyzes political, social, cultural environment Segments audiences based on their positions Assesses communication capacity of government, media, and others involved, designs training Identifies partners and local communication professionals Develops preliminary communication plan Slide 19 External Affairs Vice Presidency Communications Based Assessment Usually shows one or all of three issues needs to be changed: Design of project Process Communication Slide 20 External Affairs Vice Presidency No Economic Reform Understanding by Leadership Public Understanding % of Respondents Rating Impediment as Serious Obstacle to Economic Reforms Recently* No Sense of Crisis Social & Poverty Considerations Weak Institutional Capacity Lack of Cohesive Reform Team No Economic Reform Understanding by Population Corruption & Vested Financial Interests Short-Term Political Factors All Respondents Public Sector Respondents *Survey of senior public service and civil society representatives from 63 developing/emerging economies Kaufmann, D., Listening to Stakeholders on Development Challenges and WB Instruments in their Countries, 1996 Slide 21 External Affairs Vice Presidency Client Survey: Importance vs. Effectiveness Sector Analysis Slide 22 External Affairs Vice Presidency The Reality of Institutional Settings The Reality of Institutional Settings Ministry of Infrastructure CONFLICT Water Quality Issues CONFLICT Water Rights CONFLICT Regulation of Service Providers Provincial Government Unions CONFLICT Ministry of Health Water Authority CONFLICT Municipalities EPA CONFLICT EIAs of providers Users Water Sector Institutions in the Province of Buenos Aires Congress Courts Media National Government Service Providers Regulator Gustavo Saltiel, Urban Water Supply Practice Retreat Slide 23 External Affairs Vice Presidency WAGP one pipeline many issues Nigeria land and human rights issues from the Niger Delta Ghana financial viability Benin compensation issues form previous claims Togo in arrears Bank not engaged Slide 24 External Affairs Vice Presidency Loss of Revenue due to Stronger Competition Other Brewers Moral corruptionReligious Institutions An end to price hikesWhole Sellers and Distributors Loss of marketImporters of Foreign Brands Fear of losing marketWheat Growers Fear of losing monopoly;Bottle Manufacturers JUSTIFICATIONAUDIENCE TYPE Purchasing powerConsumers Production powerEmployees Revenue thru Property TaxLocal Gov. Authority Increased RevenueGovernment Agency (TRA) Reliable supplies, Increased profitsRetailers Loss of popularityPoliticians Errant partnersSpouses Slide 25 External Affairs Vice Presidency 1Main Audiences & Analysis Trade Union Whole Sellers/ Distributors Politicians Importers of Foreign Brands LGA Consumers Wheat Growers Association Wheat Growers Other Brewers Govt (TRA) Bottle Manufacters Spouses Bottle Manufacturers Religious Institutions HARD-CORE ALLIES ALLIESUNCOMMITTED AND INVOLVED UNCOMMITT ED & UNIVOLVED OPPONENTSUNMOVABLE OPPONENTS Retailers Employees Slide 26 External Affairs Vice Presidency OECS: Public Sector Reform General population surveys in 4 OECS countries related to public sector reform. Findings show very little frustration with level of service basic dissatisfaction but not top of mind at all (it would be a mistake to build a campaign on the negatives of the public sector). Most frustration and concern related to crime. However, findings show recognition that debt is a problem and desire to become more competitive globally. Great support for regional integration Campaign to build support for public sector reform needs to focus less on frustration related to public sector services and more on public support for greater competitiveness, recognition of the danger of debt, concern about education and crime (related to jobs and youth). Slide 27 External Affairs Vice Presidency Public services that can be shifted to private sector (% saying yes) Slide 28 External Affairs Vice Presidency Ghana PSP in water restructuring: Research findings may provide political cover: General population cares about access to clean water General population strongly supports international private sector involvement and presence in Ghana General population thinks costs will go up but accept this because they expect quality and service to increase as well World Bank: focus groups showed a fairly vocal level of animosity toward World Bank (didnt emerge as strongly in survey). Slide 29 External Affairs Vice Presidency Benefit of PSP In general, to what degree do you think Private Sector Participation in water service and delivery would benefit you as a consumer? Do you think it would have a very good impact, a somewhat good impact, a somewhat bad impact, or a very bad impact? The majority of respondents felt that Private Sector Participation in water service and delivery would have a positive impact on them. (Note: This question was asked after the concept of PSP was explained to respondents.) Slide 30 External Affairs Vice Presidency Players I am going to read out some stakeholders in Ghana. Id like you to tell me what kind of impact they have on Ghana a very good impact, a somewhat good impact, a somewhat bad impact, or a very bad impact. (Percentage of respondents giving each response.) The national government, local media, and religious leaders were perceived as having the most positive impact on Ghana. Stakeholders Very bad impact Somewhat bad impact Somewhat good impact Very good impact National government2%5%30%64% Local media1%4%36%59% Religious leaders in Ghana1%5%36%58% International NGOs1%3%39%57% The World Bank4%8%37%52% International private sector2%7%46% The IMF5%9%40%45% Local NGOs1%5%49%45% Local private sector1%7%48%44% International media2%10%46%43% ISODEC1%6%54%40% Rudolf Amenga-Etego1%12%59%30% Politicians17%24%37%22% Slide 31 External Affairs Vice Presidency If transition does not work people would see no advantage in believing in the democratic system Security and stability Foundations for the future Government procedures, practices and policies put in place A good election; Strong turnout; Acceptance of results; Hope is restored. What people would like to see at the end of the transition Slide 32 External Affairs Vice Presidency Lack of data 87% claiming government doing nothing or they are not aware of what its doing 50% put political instability as no.1 or 2 issue 25% put corruption as no.1 or 2 20% put degradation of public services as no. 1 or 2 18% put criminal violence as no. 1 or 2 Issues people are worried about Slide 33 External Affairs Vice Presidency Focus on key audiences who can re-disseminate information (e.g., media, NGOs, private sector and religious organizations) Focus on few issues Government to communicate along 3 strands: 1) Social stability erasing the climate of violence and fear in the country; getting people to think about their own development, empowering people to participate is all aspects of society 2) Return to democracy having a free, fair election process, gaining acceptance of the election results by the national and international community 3) Economic governance - good fiscal management; transparency; fighting corruption, using the money we have wisely and for economic development What to do Slide 34 External Affairs Vice Presidency What Have We Learned Risks of Not Incorporating Communication Programs into Urban Water Projects Some communication programs are not addressing real needs of projects Failed projects put Banks reputational risk on the line Projects are being delayed because of vocal opposition (even from small minority groups) Poor understanding of the political issues led the Bank in some cases to push reforms that stood little chance of success Opposition can draw global attention Slide 35 External Affairs Vice Presidency Major overlooked factor ? MANAGING EXPECTATIONS