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  • Journal of Chromatography B, 812 (2004) 5370

    Review

    Quality control of herbal medicines

    Abstract

    Differefirst compchromatothe chemconceptiocontrol ofon information theory, similarity estimation, chemical pattern recognition, spectral correlative chromatogram (SCC), multivariate resolution,etc. are dichemome 2004 E

    Keywords:

    Cont

    1. Int2. Ch

    2.12.22.32.4

    3. Hy3.13.23.3

    4. Inf4.14.24.3

    CorreE-mai

    1570-0232doi:10.101scussed in detail with examples, which showed that the combination of chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines and thetric evaluation might be a powerful tool for quality control of herbal products.lsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Herbal medicines; Fingerprints; Quality control; Chemometrics

    ents

    roduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54romatography and chemical fingerprints of herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55. Thin layer chromatography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55. Gas chromatography and volatile components in herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55. High-performance liquid chromatography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56. Electrophoretic methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56phenation procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. GCMS and herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. HPLCDAD, HPLCMS and others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. Hyphenation of CE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58ormation features of chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. Phytoequivalence and chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. Information contents of fingerprints of herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59. Correction of retention time shift of fingerprints of herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    sponding author. Tel.: +86 731 8822841; fax: +86 731 8825637.l address: yizeng liang@263.net (Y.-Z. Liang).

    /$ see front matter 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.6/j.jchromb.2004.08.041Yi-Zeng Lianga,, Peishan Xieb, Kelvin Chanca Research Center of Modernization of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chemometrics and Intelligent Analytical Instruments,

    College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR Chinab Zhuhai Chromap Institute of Herbal Medicine Research, Zhuhai 519085, PR China

    c Research and Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, SAR, PR ChinaReceived 4 April 2004; accepted 6 August 2004

    Available online 23 September 2004

    nt chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques commonly used in the instrumental inspection of herbal medicines (HM) arerehensively reviewed. Chemical fingerprints obtained by chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques, especially by hyphenatedgraphies, are strongly recommended for the purpose of quality control of herbal medicines, since they might represent appropriatelyical integrities of the herbal medicines and therefore be used for authentication and identification of the herbal products. Based on then of phytoequivalence, the chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines could be utilized for addressing the problem of qualityherbal medicines. Several novel chemometric methods for evaluating the fingerprints of herbal products, such as the method based

  • 54 Y.-Z. Liang et al. / J. Chromatogr. B 812 (2004) 5370

    5. Evaluation of chemical fingerprints of herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615.1. Fingerprints and quality control in herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615.2. Similarity of fingerprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615.3. . . . . .

    6. Qual ies by6.1. . . . . .6.2. . . . . .

    7. Furth . . . . .Acknowle . . . . .Reference . . . . .

    1. Introdu

    The tradtions haveoriental couever, one o

    preparationing as singformulae, ation procesof orientaldrug. As pon ResearcHealth Orgcontinuedextensive uhas not beequently, edbeen accorquality of tare far fromits use worare due toof adequatetraditional

    In genertive comporently empof herbal mor HM prepcompositionation, howproduct, besible for itsmay work active partsnent herbsvest seasonThus, it seechemical creliabilityresearch, teffects ofity control

    as hhromayercumgardivale

    istenmicabal profile200

    (SFDith

    as chliquiose.s, chndiny de

    pracom

    e andgraputiondifftigat

    atoidentuctedn ofly thinesnstrus sChemical pattern recognition and classification evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . .ityfication and validation of two-way data from hyphenated chromatograph

    Spectral correlative chromatogram and its applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .On-line comparison by chemometric methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    er comments on quality control of herbal medicines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .dgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    ction

    itional herbal medicines (HM) and their prepara-been widely used for thousands of years in manyntries, such as in China, Korea, Japan, etc. How-f the characteristics of oriental herbal medicines is that all the herbal medicines, either present-le herbs or as collections of herbs in compositere extracted with boiling water during the decoc-s. This may be the main reason why quality controlherbal drugs is more difficult than that of westernointed in General Guidelines for Methodologiesh and Evaluation of Traditional Medicines (Worldanization, 2000) [1], Despite its existence anduse over many centuries, and its popularity andse during the last decade, traditional medicinen officially recognized in most countries. Conse-ucation, training and research in this area have notded due attention and support. The quantity andhe safety and efficacy data on traditional medicine

    sufficient to meet the criteria needed to supportld-wide. The reasons for the lack of research datanot only to health care policies, but also to a lack

    or accepted research methodology for evaluatingmedicine.al, one or two markers or pharmacologically ac-nents in herbs and or herbal mixtures were cur-loyed for evaluating the quality and authenticityedicines, in the identification of the single herbarations, and in assessing the quantitative herbal

    n of an herbal product. This kind of the determi-ever, does not give a complete picture of a herbalcause multiple constituents are usually respon-therapeutic effects. These multiple constituents

    synergistically and could hardly be separated into

    suchgas cthin lof dobe retoequcons

    a chea herthe p

    Intiontion wsuchHMpurpniquefor fi

    Bis, insome

    activmatoattribandinveschromandcondtratioexactfuzzdemovario. Moreover, the chemical constituents in compo-globally consider multiple constituents in the HM extracts,and not individually consider only one and/or two markerin the HM products may vary depending on har-s, plant origins, drying processes and other factors.ms to be necessary to determine most of the phyto-onstituents of herbal products in order to ensure theand repeatability of pharmacological and clinicalo understand their bioactivities and possible sideactive compounds and to enhance product qual-[24]. Thus, several chromatographic techniques,

    co

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