overview of the design process user centered design
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Overview of the Design Process User Centered Design
Good Design (reminder!)
Every designer wants to build a high-quality interactive system that is admired by colleagues, celebrated by users, circulated widely, and imitated frequently. (Shneiderman, 1992, p.7)
and anything goes!
The (really) Ugly
But What Makes it Good?!FunctionalitySpeed & efficiencyReliability, security, data integrityStandardization, consistencyUSABILITY !
Closer to Fine: A Philosophy
The human user of any system is the focus of the design process. Planning and implementation is done with the user in mind, and the system is made to fit the user, not the other way around.
Good Design MeansSystems are built for humans; must be designed for the userRecognize individual differences; appreciate design implications of these human factorsRecognize the design of things, procedures, etc., influences human behavior and well-beingEmphasize empirical data & evaluationRely on the scientific methodThings, procedures, environments, and people do not exist in isolation
Good Design Is Not NOT just applying checklists and guidelinesThese can help, but USD is a whole philosophy NOT using oneself as the model userKnow your real users; recognize variation in humans NOT just common senseKnowing how to design a fire alarm so it will be heard over background noise is not something we all know.The HF specialist knows where or how to get the information needed to answer design questions
User Centered DesignA way to force yourself to identify and consider the relevant human factors in your designHelps reduce the number of decisions made out of the blue, and helps focus design activitiesHelps document and defend decisions that may be reviewed later
The Tao of UCDDESIGNIMPLEMENTUSE &EVALUATE
UCD: 9 Step OverviewDefine the ContextDescribe the UserTask AnalysisFunction AllocationSystem Layout / Basic DesignMockups & PrototypesUsability TestingIterative Test & RedesignUpdates & Maintenance
Design ImplicationsAt each stage, consider how the details of your discovery process affect your design
FactImplicationsUsers 16-80 yrsRange of text sizesRange of grip strengthSome French speakersMultilingual interfaceAstronaut usersExtensive training availableMilitary contextAesthetics less of an issueRuggedness is critical
1. Define the ContextContext: the type of uses, applicationsLife critical systems, applicationsIndustrial, commercial, military, scientific, consumerOffice, home, entertainmentExploratory, creative, cooperativeMarketCustomer (not the same as the User)Design Impacts?
2. Describe the User (!!)Physical attributes (age, gender, size, reach, visual angles, etc)Perceptual abilities (hearing, vision, heat sensitivity)Cognitive abilities (memory span, reading level, musical training, math)Physical work places (table height, sound levels, lighting, software version)Personality and social traits (likes, dislikes, preferences, patience)Cultural and international diversity (languages, dialog box flow, symbols)Special populations, (dis)abilities
3. Task AnalysisTalk to and observe users (NOT customers) doing what they doList each and every TASKBreak tasks down into STEPSABSTRACT into standard tasks (monitor, diagnose, predict, control, inspect, transmit, receive, decide, calculate, store, choose, operate, etc.)
4. Function AllocationConsider the whole system!Decide who or what is best suited to perform each task (or each step)e.g., system remembers login id, and reminds the user, but user remembers the passwordBase this on knowledge of system hardware, software, human users abilities, culture, communications protocols, privacy, etc.Allocation constraints: Effectiveness; Cognitive/affective; Cost; MandatoryDont forget the design implications!
5. System Layout / Basic DesignSummary of the components and their basic designCross-check with any Requirements Documents; Human Factors refs; Hardware specs; Budgets; Laws (ADA); etc.Ensure that the system will support the design and comply with constraints(Verification and Validation, in the language of software engineering)
6. Mockups & PrototypesInformed BrainstormingRAPIDLY mock up the user interfaces for testing with real peoplePen and paper or whiteboard to startIterate, iterate, iterate!!Increasingly functional & veridicalList audio & visual details at same levels of detail in the prototypes(i.e. dont forget either of them)
7. Usability TestingGet real (or representative) users to do what they do, using the prototypesSubjective and objective feedback. Sometimes users want features that actually yield poor performanceVideo tape, lots of notesBe rigorous wherever possible (stats, etc.)Feedback into the iterative evaluation & redesign of the systemDiscount usability testing can be very effective, using fewer subjects, more rapid results
8. Iterative Test & RedesignRepeat cycles of testing and reworking the system, subject to cost/time constraintsFocus on Functionality First !Plan for several versions during development
9. Updates & MaintenanceIn-the-field feedback, telemetry, user data, logs, surveys, etc.Analyze and make iterative redesign/test recommendationsUpdates and maintenance plan as part of the design!(design it so it can be fixed or updated)
UCD: 9 Step OverviewDefine the ContextDescribe the UserTask AnalysisFunction AllocationSystem Layout / Basic DesignMockups & PrototypesUsability TestingIterative Test & RedesignUpdates & MaintenanceDesign Implications?!!
UCD: Focusing Your EffortsThere are real-world constraintsCutting out steps is not the way to economize!Optimize the efficiency of each step
Here: Focus on the context and the user, to get the most value for the time spent
Concepts, Principles, GuidelinesRememberNo cookbooks (sorry!)No simple, universal checklistsThink from perspective of userThere are many concepts, principles, and guidelines to help youFocus on higher level principles that apply across situations, display types, etc.
and (almost) anything goes
**Lets start by broadening out concept of application, and recognizing that we could be designing anything from a tractor to a PDA application. So our motto from this point is, ANYTHING GOES!. Anything, that is, which satisfies all the requirements and constraints as outlined in our design process.*First, lets quickly look at a range of designs, in a variety of fields. Some of them are good, like this seat adjustment system. What makes it good?*What about this one? What are some of the features that makes this a good design?*Not all designs end up being good Seriously, wat went wrong with this design? Someone made it thinking it would be very easy to use. No one INTENDS to make an awkward design but how do we avoid it?*Even designs that we consider classic or standard can be bad, for one reason or another. It has always been done like that is NO EXCUSE for a poor design!!
What are two things that could be improved here? (S-R compatibility of controls; reaching over the burners to get to the controls)*Much of what you will be designing is visualsoftware is largely visual, Web pages, signs, and so on. So you need to pay extra attention to the visual world you create.
This is from a road in Mexico. You can see this, and other examples at baddesigns.com. So which way should you go?
It really means do not go to the right.*This is an actual intersection in California. Ugly. Just ugly. But what makes it so bad?
Clutter, small signs, competing signals. If you were turning left, which light is yours?
*This is an actual icon for a file system or is it?
It sucks! But why?
Lack of structure, lack of order, inconsistent (and ugly) use of color, fonts, sounds; excessive scripting*Uhh, this is an actual web page! Its not even fake!
What do these people sell?
What is their address?
And what is up with that background image?!!*So youve seen some of the good, the bad, the ugly
As for this one, the jury is still out!. :)
Okay, those are just a few examples*So what is it that makes a design GOOD?
Speed & efficiency
Reliability, security, data integrity
BUT MOSTLY, USABILITY
Now, how do we get there?!! How can we make good designs?*It starts with a PHILOSOPHY that puts the human in the center of the design, regardless of what the product or application is. Somehow, somewhere, a human will be affected by your design.
*There is a secret society known as Human Factors professionals. Some of us are engineers, some psychologists, some work in other fields.
We all share a common set of principles (and a secret handshake), that include the following:
Systems are built for humans; they must be designed for the userRecognize individual differences; appreciate the design implications of these factorsRecognize the design of things, procedures, etc., influences human behavior and well-beingEmphasize empirical data & evaluationRely on the scientific method and test hypothesesThings, procedures, environments, and people do not exist in isolation
*Now, many people claim us use Human Factors in their designs and many do.
But let me say a few words about what Human Factors is NOT:NOT just applying checklists and guidelinesThese can help, but USD is a whole philosophy NOT using onese