ougd201 - dpp. what is design for print. top ten manual

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OUGD201 - DPP. What is Design for Print. Top Ten Manual


  • / A Top Ten Manual focusing on the main aspects of commercial print processes and the know how to getting it right in print.

    / Print guide

    Baljeet Kaur Samra

    / OUGD201 Design Production - PrintWhat is Design for Print?

  • / Contents

    1 / Paper Size 2 / Printing Methods

    LithographyFlexographyScreen PrintingDigital

    3 / Colour

    CMYK & RGBPMSSpot ColoursDuotoneTints / Shades / Tones

    7 / Trapping 8 / Print Finishes

    VarnishesEmbossing / DebossingFoil Blocking

    9 / Proofing

    A / B / CStandarised Paper sizes

    The importance of ensuring that trapping has been considered in your work.

    The importance of proofing your work before having it printed.

  • 4 / Stock 5 / Imposition 6 / File types

    10 / Costings

    A guide to different stock and their primary uses.

    A guide to imposition when send artwork to print.

    Which file types to use when sending your artwork to print.

    Choosing the right printer and getting youre constings right.

  • / Paper size

    A Series


    841 x 1189594 x 841420 x 594297 x 420210 x 197148 x 210105 x 14874 x 10552 x 7437 x 5226 x 37

    B Series


    1000 1414594707 1000500 707353 500250 353176 250125 17688 12562 8844 6231 44

    C Series


    917 1297648 917458 648324 458229 324162 229114 16281 11457 8140 5728 40

  • ISO Paper Size

    The ISO paper size system is an international standard that is used in many places in the world in copy and print devices that defines paper sizes. Based on the metric system, the ISO paper size system uses a height-to-width ratio with an aspect ratio of 1 to 1.414, If a sheet is cut into two, the resulting halves are the same proportions as the original.

  • / printing methods


    Flexography (often abbreviated to flexo) is a form of printing process which utilises a flexible relief plate. It is basically an updated version of letterpress that can be used for printing on almost any type of substrate including plastic, metallic films, cellophane, and paper. It is widely used for printing on the non-porous substrates required for various types of food packaging.


    In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible aluminum plate. To print an image lithographically, the flat surface of the stone plate is roughened slightly etched and divided into regions that accept a film of water, and thereby repel the greasy ink. The image can be printed directly from the stone plate (the orientation of the image is reversed), or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet (rubber) for printing and publication.

    Screen Printing

    Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh. A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas.

  • Commercial PrintingProcessesExplaining the process behind various printing techniques such as;Lithography Flexography Screen printingDigital printing

    Digital Printing

    Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital based image directly to a variety of media. Refers to professional printing where small run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large format and/or high volume laser or inkjet printers. It also allows for on demand printing, short turn around.

  • / Litho Printing

    How does Litho printng work?

    The process of Litho Printing is based on the basic principle that oil and water do not mix.

    The first step begins with the plates. Lithographic plates have a roughened surface and are coated with a photosensitive (light sensitive) emulsion. This emulsion is a suspension of two chemicals that cannot be mixed together.

    There are two ways that the plates are made :

    1 - Exposure from light source with film on top of the plate.

    2 Exposure to the plate

    using a machine that exposes the plate, using lasers directly from the computer.

    Both of these ways create a photographic negative of the image/text for print, releasing the emulsion, and transferring

    a clear image to the emulsion.The final step is very similar

    to developing film in a photo lab. The emulsion is then chemically treated to remove the unexposed portions.

    Once the printing plate has been made, the printing image/text is rendered grease receptive and hydrophobic, or water repelling.

    On the press the plate is then mounted on the plate cylinder

    which as it rotates, will come into contact with the wet rollers by a dampening solution or water, adhering to the rough or negative portions of the image. Then the plate will come into contact with the roller coated with ink, and this will then adhere to the smooth or positive portions of the image.

    If this image were to be transferred directly to paper, it would create a positive image, but there would be moistened paper. To prevent this, a cylinder covered with a rubber surface, known as a blanket, is rolled over the plate. The blanket squeezes away the water, and picks up the

  • ink. The cylinder is then rolled over the paper, transferring the ink. This is called offset lithography because the image is first transferred to the blanket cylinder, and the image is offset to the drum before being applied to the paper.

  • called because it meters the amount of ink applied to the plate), a roller with the plate attached, and a impression roller. The meter roll applies a predetermined measurement of ink to the plate. The plate is subsequently scraped by the doctor blade. The substrate is passed between the print plate and the impression roller, which applies pressure to the keep the substrate against the plate.

    / Flexo Printing

    How does Flexo printng work?

    Flexographic printing begins with development of a flexographic plate. Flexographic plates can be created using three different methods. One method uses a UV reactive polymer. UV light is shined onto a film negative positioned over the polymer. The polymer reacts to the UV that comes through the negative and hardens. The unhardened polymer is removed using water or a chemical solvent.

    A second technique is digital platemaking. Digital

    platemaking involves establishing the wanted image in a digital format (typically with a desktop publishing program) and using that digital master image to laser-etch the plate.

    The final method is to create a mold. In this technique, a metal plate is exposed using a negative. Following the exposure, the plate is given an acid bath creating an engraved image. A master plate mold is produced from the engraved metal plate, and the final printing plate is produced from the master mold.

    Effectively, there are three rollers involved: a meter roll (so

  • / ScreenPrinting

    How does Screenprintng work?

    The equivalent of the printing plate for the screen printer is the screen - a wooden or aluminium frame with a fine nylon mesh stretched over it. The mesh is coated with a light sensitive emulsion or film, which - when dry - will block the holes in the mesh.

    The image that needs to be printed is output to film either by camera or image-setter. This film positive and the mesh on the screen are sandwiched together and exposed to

    ultra-violet light in a device

    called a print-down frame. The screen is then washed with a jet of water which washes away all the light sensitive emulsion that has not been hardened by the ultra-violet light. This leaves you with an open stencil which corresponds exactly to the image that was supplied on the film. Now the screen is fitted on the press and is hinged so it can be raised and lowered.

    The substrate to be printed is placed in position under the screen and ink is placed on the top side of the screen, (the frame acts also as wall to contain the ink ). A rubber blade gripped in a wooden or

    metal handle called a squeegee (not unlike a giant wind-screen wiper) is pulled across the top of the screen; it pushes the ink through the mesh onto the surface of the substrate you are printing. To repeat the process the squeegee floods the screen again with a return stroke before printing the next impression.

  • / DigitalPrinting

    How does Digitalprintng work?

    Digital Printing takes a different approach assembling each image from a complex set numbers and mathematical formulas. These images are captured from a matrix of dots, generally called pixels, this process is called digitizing. The digitized image is then used to digitally controlled deposition of ink, toner or exposure to electromagnetic energy, such as light, to reproduce images. The mathematical formulas also allow for algorithms to compress the data. It also give

    a method of Calibration or Color Management Systems which helps to keep images looking the same color despite where they are view or printed. One important function that the mathematical formulas allowed was the development of a common language for digital printing it is called PostScript and was developed by Adobe. To see what PostScript looks like open a PDF or EPS in a text editor, the code seems very intricate but to a computer it just a simple code of instructions.

    One of the most important advantages that Digital printing

    offers is a quicker response time due to its minimal press setup and its built in multicolor registration system. This elimi