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  • 1. MUGHAL ARCHITECTUREAman Kumar

2. IntroductionMajor Mughal contribution to the Indian subcontinent was theirunique architecture. Many monuments were built by the Muslimemperors, especially Shah jahan, during the Mughal era. One of themis the world famous Taj Mahal. Others are Fatehpur sikri, Red fort,Qutb Minar and Agra fort and many more. 3. MughalPaintings 4. Under the rule of King Akbar, there was a large scale growthof Painting experience. He encouraged paintings based on Ramayana, Mahabharataand Persian epics. It also used to depict nature, animal talesand portraits of Kings and Queens. The king who showed the maximum interest in painting wasEmperor Jahangir. This period saw more and more refinement in brushwork, alongwith the use of much lighter colours. During the rule of Aurangzeb, Painting was not allowed andthus Mughal style of painting started to decline. 5. Bahabar Shah Jafar 6. A rare picture of Bahadur Shah Jafar awaiting trial 7. Mughal Literature 8. Mughal Literature Islamic schools were attached to mosques, Khanqah of the Sufis and tombs. Students received education free of cost. Famous scholars received fixed stipends from theroyal treasury. Nizamiyyah ( model of madrasa) system of education was introduced. Nizamiyyah institutes were the first well organized higher institutes of learning inthe Muslim world. The quality of education was the highest in the Islamic world. Girls from rich families were given private tuitions at home and girls from middle classwere usually able to attend classes in the same schools as the boys. 9. Mughal LiteratureThe Mughal period saw great developments in the fieldof literature.Many Mughal emperors and members of the royalfamily were great men of letters.Babar the first Mughal emperor was one of the pioneersof Turkish poetry and also the author of a very valuableautobiography in Turkish BabarNama which was latertranslated into PersianJahangir the great connoisseur of painting wrote hisautobiography the Tuzuk-i- Jahangiri.The last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was anotable Urdu poet. 10. Mughal Literature Hindi literature made significant progress during Akbarsreign. Tulsidas and the Surdas wrote in this period. Keshavdas agreat poet wrote on themes of love Abul Fazl wrote the Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama duringAkbars reign. Akbar also encouraged the translation of Mahabharat,Bhagvad Gita, a Panchatantra, etc. One of the most significant developments during the medievalperiod was the birth of the Urdu language. It produced great poets like Wali, Mir Dard, Mir Taqi,Akbarabadi, etc. 11. Indo-Islamic style is neither a local variant of Islamic art, nor amodification of Hindu art; it is an assimilation of both the styles,though not always in an equal degree. On the other hand, Islamicart itself was a composite style, which had various Muslimsinfluences-Turkish, Persian, and Arabic.This amalgamation of exotic and indigenous architectural styleswas possible due to a variety or factors- Muslim rulers had to use,in most cases, Indian craftsmen and sculptors who were schooledin their own art traditions. Another factor that inadvertentlycontributed to this fusionof style was that during the early Muslim invasions, mosques wereoften built out of materials from Hindu and Jain temples andsometimes temples themselves were modified into mosques. 12. FATEHPUR SIKRIFatehpur Sikri Fort was built by Akbar. It isregarded as Emperor Akbars crowningarchitectural legacy. This was the temporary capitalof Emperor Akbar, of the Mughal Empire, between1570 to 1586. He came to the city of Sikri and metthe Sufi mystic called Sheikh Salim Chishti. Salimtold the Emperor that he would have at least threesons. A year later, the first son was born. Ingratitude, Akbar named the son Salim (later knownas Jahangir), after the saint and he also moved hiscapital here. 13. FATEHPUR SIKRISikri was the first planned city of the Mughals. Akbar chose to construct this capitalon the natural feature of the terrain. In 1571, Akbar began building a mosque andthen a palace complex at Sikri. The nobilities built their mansions further down thehill and shops lined the road to Agra. To commemorate his conquest of Gujarat,Akbar named his new capital Fatehpur Sikri or the City of Victory.The structures here include palaces and courtyards, as well as official buildings, like audience halls,the treasury, the harem, soldier's barracks and kitchens. The attached complex comprises the mainmosque, the shrine of Sheikh Salim Chishti, and a lofty gateway. The mosque complex at the highestlevel comprising of Jami Masjid, Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti and Buland Darwajah. Royalcomplex on the lower level comprising of Raniwas, Mahal-I-ilaahi, Shahi Bazaar, Meena Bazaar,Baithak and gardens. And the public complex at the lowest level comprised of Panch Mahal,Khawabghah, Shahi kutub khana, Ibaadat khana and deewaan-i-aam. 14. FATEHPUR SIKRIINSIDE FATEHPUR SIKRIThe Dewan-i-Khasor Ibadat khana. Is thecenterpiece of the room, it is a highly decoratedpillar Throne pillar, from which four bridgesradiate. Akbars throne is placed on the circularplatform over the central pillar. It is here thatAkbar, seated on his throne, listened to thediscussions/debates among representatives/gurus ofall the major religions of that time.Deewan-i-Khaas 15. FATEHPUR SIKRIThe Pachisi court has a giant stoneboard of the game Chausar . It isbelieved that Akbar used to play thisgame using slave girls as live pieces.According to Abul Fazal Anotherjewel of Akbars Nauratna- at a timethere were about 200-300 peopleplaying the game with Akbar and theywere not allowed to go home till theEmperor had played 16 rounds of thisgame.Treasury or Aankh MichauliThe Treasury or Aankh Michauli was composed of three rooms.Current thinking suggests that that building was used as theimperial treasury of gold and silver coins. Its brackets hadmythological sea creatures carved on it signifying theguardians of the treasures of the deep seaPachisi Court 16. Taj MahalThe Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. TheMughal Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned it as amausoleum for his favorite wife, MumtazMahal.Construction of the Taj Mahal was begun in Agra soon afterMumtaz's death. The principal mausoleum was completed in1648, and the surrounding buildings and garden five yearslater.Construction began in 1632 and was completed in 1648. 17. Taj MahalThe Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from allover India and Asia. Over 1,000 elephants were used totransport building materials during the construction. Thetranslucent white marble was brought from Rajasthan,the jasper from Punjab and the jade and crystal fromChina. The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazulifrom Afghanistan, while the sapphire came from SriLanka and the carnelian from Arabia. In all, 28 types ofprecious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into thewhite marble. 18. Taj MahalThe Taj rises on a high red sandstone base topped by a hugewhite marble terrace on which rests the famous dome flankedby four tapering minarets. Within the dome lies the jewel-inlaidcenotaph of the queen. So exquisite is the workmanshipthat the Taj has been described as "having been designed bygiants and finished by jewellers" . The only asymmetrical objectin the Taj is the casket of the emperor which was built besidethe queens as an after-thought.Inside the dome 19. The Taj Mahal is built from precious white marble with delicate mosaic, with inlaid precious stones.Almost every surface of the entire building has been decorated, and every detail is symmetrical. Themosaic designs are based on three decorative elements- calligraphy, abstract geometric and vegetativemotifs. The exterior decorations of the Tag Mahal are among the finest to be found in Mughalarchitecture of any period. The Taj Mahal is arguably one of the most incredible man-made constructions in the world. Its located inAgra, which is in the north central part of Indian, on the right part of the Humana River. Known for itssymmetry, the Taj Mahal sits on a raised platform surrounded by four minarets. 20. The tomb of Shah Jahan bears a calligraphicinscription, not taken from the Qur'an, butreferring to the resting place of this MughalEmperor. Part of the inscription reads; "Hetravelled from this world to the banquet-hall ofEternity on the night of the twenty-sixth of themonth of Rajab, in the year1076 Hijri." 21. Shah Jehan deemedthat one else should evercopy the masterpiece, sohe had the master craftsmanUstad Isa righthand cut off.Many people believe,Shah Jehan had planned tobuild another Taj Mahal in black marble,which was to be his own tomb on theopposite bank of the River Yamuna andconnect the two by a bridge.However, the construction nevergot started due to conflict with hisson, which took up most of his time.The Taj Mahal cost 32 million rupeesto build, which is roughly $1,000,000. 22. A whole town, named Mumtazabad, was constructed to house the twentythousand workers who laboured for whole years to build the Taj Mahal. Above the tombs is a Cairene lamp, the flame of which is supposed to neverburn out. The acoustics of the building are superb with the domed ceilingbeing designed to echo chants from the Koran and musicians melodies. Taj is a worlds wonder because of its perfect symmetry, than beauty. Thecomposition of the forms and lines is perfectly symmetrical. Here is abeautiful admixture of lines, horizontal with vertical, and straight with curvedall harmoniously set together in total unity. The adopt each other with amazing uniformity. 23. The Red Fort, set amidst the bustling heart of Old Delhi, with its obligatory share of dust and memories, bearsthe stamp of a place that has seen much grandeur and knows it. After Mughal Emperor Shahjahan shifted hiscapital to the royal quarters of Delhi, this colossal fort sprouted from the heart of his new city, Shahjahanabad.History traces its way back