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  • Planning, Construction and Operation of Water Harvesting Structures

    in South Sudan

    TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

    Ministry of Electricity, Dams, Irrigation and Water Resources

  • 2015, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO and UNEP in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO and UNEP.

    Cover Image: FAO

    Design and layout: Matija Potocnik, UNEP / PCDMB

  • Table of contents

    Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

    Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

    Definition of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

    1 . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

    2 . Major findings of technical issues related to water harvesting structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

    3 . Purpose of the technical guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

    4 . Phases to implement a water harvesting project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 .1 Stakeholders identification and consultation (Phase 0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 .2 Project implementation phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

    4 .2 .1 Planning (Phase 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 .2 .2 Construction (Phase 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 .2 .3 Operation and Maintenance (Phase 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

    Annex 1 Comparison of different types of WH structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Annex 2 A table for calculation of water requirement that determines the volume of WH structures . .17Annex 3 Equation for calculation of any one dimension of a haffir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Annex 4 Haffir technical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

    List of boxesBox 1 . Technical issues to be considered during feasibility study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Box 2 . Topographic survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Box 3 . Technical elements (general design criteria) to be considered during technical design . . . . . . .11Box 4 . Soil investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Box 5 . Considerations for when a haffir is the selected option of water harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Box 6 . Technical issues to be considered during construction phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Box 7 . Issues to consider for Operation and Maintenance Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

  • 2 Planning, Construction and Operation of Water Harvesting Structures in South Sudan

    Acknowledgements

    These guidelines were prepared with technical support of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) .

    The financial support for development of the guidelines was provided by South Sudan Peacebuilding Fund under the project entitled Assessment of water harvesting structures for sustainable livelihoods and peacebuilding in South Sudan

    The guidelines have been prepared by Eshetu Abate Legesse, FAO SS Consultant and it was enriched by 32 trainees from 16 State Ministries responsible for rural water provision and livestock, and four National Ministries responsible for water, environment, gender and livestock (MEDIWR, MoE, MGCSW, and MoLFI of the Republic of South Sudan) .

  • 3Technical Guidelines

    Acronyms

    EES . . . . . . . . . . . . Eastern Equatoria State

    FAO . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    FGDs . . . . . . . . . . Focus Group Discussions

    KII . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key Informant Interviews

    MEDIWR . . . . . . . . Ministry of Electricity, Dams, Irrigation and Water Resources

    MGCSW . . . . . . . . Ministry of Gender, Child and Social Welfare

    MoE . . . . . . . . . . . Ministry of Environment

    MoLFI . . . . . . . . . . Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries

    PBF . . . . . . . . . . . . Peace Building Fund

    RSS . . . . . . . . . . . . Republic of South Sudan

    UNEP . . . . . . . . . . . United Nations Environment Programme

    WES . . . . . . . . . . . Western Equatoria State

    WH . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Harvesting

  • 4 Planning, Construction and Operation of Water Harvesting Structures in South Sudan

    Boma . . . . . . . . . . . . .The lowest administrative unit in South Sudan after payam .

    Haffir . . . . . . . . . . . . .Arabic word for a pond .

    Payam . . . . . . . . . . . .An administrative unit in South Sudan below county administration and equivalent to district administration .

    Rock catchment . . . .A structure that uses a large barren rock surface to collect rainwater like a roof water catchment structure . The collected rainwater is stored in a separate reservoir .

    Sieve analysis . . . . . .Sieve analysis is the procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material . The size distribution is often of critical importance to the way the material performs in use . A sieve analysis can be performed on any type of non-organic or organic granular materials including sands, crushed rock, clays or granite . The results will be put in a table with determined percentages of grain sizes of each particle .

    Water barrier/pan . . .An impounding structure formed by a micro/small earth dam .

    Water harvesting1 . . .Water harvesting encompasses all activities where water is collected, stored and utilized in either the blue or green form . It includes harvesting rainfall directly, as well as floodwater harvesting . It is achieved in many ways, and the water can be stored in tanks, ponds, and dams or channeled into the soil profile . Therefore, wa ter har-vesting is a general term that encompasses rainwater harvesting and/or floodwater harvesting .

    1 Best Practices for Rainwater Harvesting from Open Surfaces with Storage in Structures, Bancy M . Mati, 2012: Training Manual 2 . NBI/NELSAP - Regional Agricultural and Trade Programme (RATP), Bujumbura, Burundi .

    Definition of terms

  • 5Technical Guidelines

    While the drivers of conflict in South Sudan are numerous, conflict over natural resources, particularly com-petition over access to traditional grazing lands and water rights, remains a fundamental challenge to peace and stability in the country . Various approaches and strategies are required to manage and resolve conflicts depending on the sources of the conflict . However, there is a general understanding between the Government, conflict-affected communities and development partners that resource-based conflicts can be mitigated or addressed through a combination of dev