mindfulness & meditation

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A presentation on mindfulness, meditation for university psychology students (2011)-Non commercial use only--May please feedback to me if you have any questions-


  • 1.Mindfulness TherapyBoo Yan Jiong +60126309759 byanjiong@yahoo.comHealth Psychology Student

2. Agenda Introduction Path of Mindfulness Healthy lifestyle Mindfulness Self-actualization/Wisdom cultivation/etc. Benefit of mindfulness Current Research Therapeutic Interventions MBSR, MBCT Add-on info From ancient to recent Summary Q&A 3. Introduction Meditation is a worldwide practice, although it may different in the techniques Concentration meditation, chanting, contemplation, repetition of sounds/words, prayer, etcBC 5000 40003000 20001000010002000ADOld Testament: hg (to meditate)Buddhism (~500BC)Hinduism: Historical Verdic Religion(1500~500BC)Islam: Sufism, Dhikr(~600AD)Jainism: Acaranga Sutra(~500BC) Tao: LaoTzu (~500BC) Every human being has the potential to performChristianity (~0AD) meditation share the similar genetic structure Etc 4. Introduction Example of meditation practices in different cultures A strong believer in Christian meditation, Saint PadrePio stated: "Through the study of books one seeksGod; by meditation one finds him"Hinduism: A large statue in Buddhism: Buddha Bangalore depicting Lord in meditation poseShiva meditating Dhikr singing, sufism, pr Jainism: Lord Mahaveer inayer meditative postureJudaism: Old Testament, there are two Hebrewwords for meditation: hg (Hebrew means to sighor murmur, but also to meditate, and s (Hebrew:which means to muse, or rehearse in ones mind. 5. Path of Mindfulness Typical path of mindfulness Shared byHinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Bahai, etc Self-actualization / Healthy Lifestyle Mindfulness Wisdom Cultivation/ Etc. 6. Healthy Lifestyle Healthy lifestyle can enhance the quality of mindfulness training Unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. addiction, anger, neuroticm, etc.) almost makemindfulness impossible Changes of lifestyle is needed! Criteria of healthy lifestyle: Healthy diet Physically healthy Healthy defined by the norms is Mentally healthy just not enough, advance cultivation Socially healthyof more healthy lifestyle isessential Spiritually healthy etc 7. Mindfulness Types of mindfulness Types of suitable references Stage of mindfulness Example of mindfulness techniques 8. Types of meditation Types Types Right mindfulnessInappropriate mindfulnessRelated to healthy lifestyleRelated to unhealthy lifestyleYield positive resultsYield unhealthy resultsE.g. [to be introduce in following slides]E.g. concentrating on PC games for longperiod, stay awake to watch TV drama formany hours, keep on focusing on breathingmeditation even though feel tired, etc 9. Types of meditation Result of right and inappropriate mindfulness Practitioner should aware of the differences Stay on right track in order to progress wellComparison Right MindfulnessInappropriate MindfulnessResultSerene, peaceful mind Blockage, static mindPhysical revitalization, recovery Stiff neck, rigid shoulder, headache,exhaustedSharp awareness, cognitiveAwareness, understanding, andfunction improved reasoning skill impairedMind aware of here and now, able Distance feeling of the mind, yet feelto work efficientlysort of mindfulnessPatience, content, happy, Irritable, prone to anger, even thoughlook serene on the surface 10. Types of suitable references To establish right mindfulness, we need to use appropriatereferences Can we establish right mindfulness by observing the monkeys in jungle? Maybe yes, but it will be very very hard Suitable subject as references Object E.g. Breath, postures (sitting/walking/lying), material elements, sounds, light, water, etc. Sensation/Feeling E.g. pleasant or unpleasant (neutral) feeling, etc. Mind/Consciousness E.g. stat of emotion, state of mind Idea/Mental contents E.g. concepts, idea, etc. 11. Stages of mindfulness Progressive subtle changes of mind in mindfulness practice Number of stages may different across culture, yet the trend is shared by most culture 1. Stage of the joy and pleasure of abandoning coarse desires 2. Stage of solely in the joy and pleasure produced by mindfulness 3. Stage of sublime pleasure that transcends ordinary joy 4. Stage of mental stability free from various sensations of pain and pleasure 5. Stage of boundless space and abides therein 6. Stage of boundless consciousness and abides therein 7. Stage of nothingness and abides therein 8. Stage of neither-perception- nor- non- perception and abides therein 12. Example of mindfulness techniques Different techniques may serve differentpurposes E.g. Cultivate concentration: breathing meditation, mantra, etc Cultivate virtues: loving kindness meditation, etc Cultivate wisdom: analytic meditation, contemplation Different techniques may reach different state ofmindfulness There is no any best technique, every techniqueis goodTechniques of meditation are limited only by human imagination 13. Breathing Meditation (Anapanasati) Brief descriptions: To bring the attention to the breath, but not to control it Give full attention to the inhale and exhale, non-judgmentally Dwell in the present, moment by moment, breath by breath When attention wanders, note it and then gently bring awareness back to thebreath Why breathing ? Truth, vital, always with you, present tense, carrier of mind Emotions, thoughts, and perversions Breathing can be either voluntary or involuntary Even though you are panic, you can involuntary control your breath to become slow and steady, which enable breathing meditation to be applied Tune the body breathing mind Tune from the Coarse to the fine 14. Visualization & Chanting Meditation Brief description: May use certain images, sounds to achievemindfulness state Images: The Holy-One, The Noble-One, natural objects (e.g. flow of water, plants, flower), etc Sounds: natural sounds, mantra, poem, etc There are variety of the techniques, and eachtraditions have different viewpoints 15. Observing Bodily Sensation Meditation Brief description: Observe the bodily sensation with: Calm and quiet mind Awake and attentive mind Cultivate the equanimity, happiness in within oneself To perceive the world with the beginners mind, non- striving, and acceptance mind E.g. if there is pleasurable sensation, then it is it If there is pain sensation, then it is it 16. Yoga Meditation Brief descriptions: A traditional physical and mental disciplines that originated in India Reach the unity between the physical and mental Major branches of Yoga in Hindu philosophy: Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Hatha Yoga Basically, yoga: Stretching for flexibility Improved Strength Improved Balance Improve breathing technique Unite physical and the mental Example:Samadhi Dhyana DharanaPratyahara PranayamaAsana NiyamaYamaRaja Yoga 17. Chakra Meditation Brief description: A physical, mental and spiritual discipline for developing and tappinginto inner energy and awareness An active approach to awaken the kundalini energy Change the quality of awareness, experience, intellect and of the mind Note: Different traditions have slightly different interpretations of the chakrameditation Further reading is needed This slide is unable to provide any further information, except the name itself 18. Tummo Meditation Brief descriptions: Origin from Tibet A quite advance type of meditation (inner-fire meditation) A practice associated with the subtle body of energy-channels, of energy- winds and energy-drops Primary purpose is to gain control over subtle body processes as a foundation for more advanced practice Scientific investigation subjects exhibited the capacity to increase the temperature of their fingers and toes by as much as 8.3CA Buddhist monk has his vital signs measured as he prepares to enter an advanced state of meditation in Normandy, France.During meditation, the monks body is said to produce enough heat to dry cold, wet sheets put over his shoulders in a frigidroom (Photo courtesy of Herbert Benson). 19. Daily Living Meditation Brief descriptions: Daily activities as meditation Observed the nature with equanimity, non-judgement, beginnermind Awareness from moment to moment, loving kindness, forgive, trust,etc.Living mindfully, you detach yourself from the past and futureDwelling in the Now, you found the true happiness Living in the moment, you observe there is space between the past and the future, where freedom lay in between it 20. Loving Kindness Meditation (Metta) Brief description: A technique to cultivate the loving kindness by wish happiness to one-self, parents, friends, teachers, gradually to the universe In daily life, keep on practicing: Wish others to be happy Contemplate on the course of happiness Fulfil the act of compassion What can I do to help them?Send the love gradually to your family members, friends, neutral person, difficult person, other beings, and gradually to the entireuniverse If you have the love in within you, then there will be thousand of hands reaching you whenever your are in difficulty; If you have the love in within you, then you will have the ability to stretch out thousands of hand to help those who are in difficulties. 21. Analytic Meditation (Contemplation) Brief descriptions: A practice of self-transformation through self-observation and introspection An intellectual practice that look deep into every single phenomenon in life Asking the why, what, how, etc. Very essential in cultivating wisdom Only practice concentration meditation is not good enough (without wisdom, one may attach to the bliss sensation of mindfulness) Similar to CBT in psychology, except analytic meditation required sharp awareness cultivated from concentration mindfulness i.e. Switch from concentration meditation to analytic meditation in order to contemplate 22. Other mindfulness techniques There are plenty of techniques, such as: prayers, dream yoga, Zen yoga, Taoism meditation,mindfulness-based programs, secular meditation,music meditation, etc. Last but not least: your technique (your creation of mindfulness te


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