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Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersOne of the key topics for establishing meaningful links between brain sciencesand education is the development of reading. How does biology constrainlearning to read? How does experience shape the development of readingskills? How does research on biology and behavior connect to the ways thatschools, teachers, and parents help children learn to read, particularly in theface of disabilities that interfere with learning? This book addresses these ques-tions and illuminates why reading disorders have been hard to identify, howrecent research has established a firm base of knowledge about the cognitiveneuroscience of reading problems and the learning tools for overcoming them,and, finally, what the future holds for relating mind, brain, and education tounderstanding reading difficulties. Connecting knowledge from neuroscience,genetics, cognitive science, child development, neuropsychology, and educa-tion, this book will be of interest to both academic researchers and graduatestudents.kurt w. f i scher is Charles Warland Bigelow Professor of Educationand Human Development and Director of the Mind, Brain, and EducationProgram in the Graduate School of Education at Harvard University. He isfounding president of the International Mind, Brain, and Education Societyand founding editor of the new journal Mind, Brain, and Education.jane holmes bernste in is a developmental neuropsychologist whodivides her time between teaching, writing, and research responsibilities atthe Childrens Hospital Boston and the establishment of a National ChildDevelopment Program in Trinidad and Tobago.mary helen immordino-yang studies the neuroscience of emotionand its relation to cognitive, linguistic, and social development at the Brain andCreativity Institute, University of Southern California. She recently receivedher doctorate from the Graduate School of Education at Harvard University. Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgCambridge Studies in Cognitive and Perceptual DevelopmentSeries EditorsGIYOO HATANOUniversity of the Air, Chiba, JapanKURT W. FISCHERHarvard University, USAAdvisory BoardGavin Bremner, Lancaster University, UKPatricia M. Greenfield, University of California, Los Angeles, USAPaul Harris, Harvard University, USADaniel Stern, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandEsther Thelen, Indiana University, USAThe aim of this series is to provide a scholarly forum for current theoretical and empiricalissues in cognitive and perceptual development. As the twenty-first century begins,the field is no longer dominated by monolithic theories. Contemporary explanationsbuild on the combined influences of biological, cultural, contextual, and ecologicalfactors in well-defined research domains. In the field of cognitive development, culturaland situational factors are widely recognized as influencing the emergence and formsof reasoning in children. In perceptual development, the field has moved beyond theopposition of innate and acquired to suggest a continuous role for perception inthe acquisition of knowledge. These approaches and issues will all be reflected in theseries, which will also address such important research themes as the indissociablelink between perception and action in the developing motor system, the relationshipbetween perceptual and cognitive development and modern ideas on the developmentof the brain, the significance of developmental processes themselves, dynamic systemstheory, and contemporary work in the psychodynamic tradition, especially as it relatesto the foundations of self-knowledge.Titles published in the series1. Jacqueline Nadel and George Butterworth, Imitation in Infancy2. Margaret Harris and Giyoo Hatano, Learning to Read and Write: ACross-Linguistic Perspective3. Michael Siegal and Candida Peterson, Childrens Understanding of Biology andHealth4. Paul Light and Karen Littleton, Social Processes in Childrens Learning5. Antonio M. Battro, Half a Brain is Enough: The Story of Nico6. Andrew N. Meltzoff and Wolfgang Prinz, The Imitative Mind: Development,Evolution and Brain Bases7. Nira Granott and Jim Parziale, Microdevelopment: Transition Processes inDevelopment and Learning8. Edited by Heidi Keller, Ype H. Poortinga and Axel Scholmerich, Between Cultureand Biology: Perspectives on Ontogenetic Development9. Nobuo Masataka, The Onset of Language10. Edited by Andreas Demetriou and Athanassios Raftopoulos, CognitiveDevelopmental Change: Theories, Models and Measurement Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgMind, Brain, and Education inReading DisordersEdited byKurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein,and Mary Helen Immordino-Yang Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgcambridge univers ity pressCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao PauloCambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UKPublished in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New Yorkwww.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521854795C Cambridge University Press 2007This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place withoutthe written permission of Cambridge University Press.First published 2007Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, CambridgeA catalogue record for this publication is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloguing in Publication dataMind, brain, and education in reading disorders / edited by Kurt W.Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-Yang.p. cm. (Cambridge studies in cognitive and perceptual development; 11)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-0-521-85479-5 (hardback)ISBN-10: 0-521-85479-2 (hardback)1. Reading disability. 2. Reading disability Pathophysiology. 3. Reading Physiological aspects. I. Fischer, Kurt W. II. Bernstein, Jane Holmes, 1947III. Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen, 1971 IV. Series: Cambridge studies incognitive perceptual development; 11.[DNLM: 1. Dyslexia physiopathology. 2. Dyslexia psychology.3. Dyslexia therapy. WL 340.6 M664 2007]RC394.W6M562 2007616.8553 dc222007000299ISBN 978-0-521-85479-5 hardbackCambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy ofURLs for external or third-party Internet websites referred to in this publication, anddoes not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate orappropriate. Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgTo our late colleagues and friends who made fundamentalcontributions to this book Ann Brown, Robbie Case,Jeanne Chall, and Samuel P. Rose Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgContentsList of figures page xiiList of tables xivList of contributors xvAcknowledgements xviiPart I What is Reading, and What are Reading Disorders?Looking to Neuroscience, Evolution, and Genetics1 Toward a grounded synthesis of mind, brain, andeducation for reading disorders: an introduction to thefield and this book 3kurt w. f i scher , mary helenimmordino-yang, and deborah waber2 An evolutionary perspective on reading and readingdisorders 16mary helen immordino-yang andterrence w. deaconEssay: Brain volume and the acquisition of adaptivecapacities 30verne s . caviness3 The genetics of dyslexia: what is the phenotype? 37albert m. galaburda and gordon f. shermanPart II Reading and the Growing Brain: Methodologyand History4 A brief history of time, phonology, and other explanationsof developmental dyslexia 61maryanne wolf and jane ashbyix Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgx Contents5 Approaches to behavioral and neurological research onlearning disabilities: in search of a deeper synthesis 80robb ie case6 Growth cycles of mind and brain: analyzing developmentalpathways of learning disorders 101kurt w. f i scher , l . todd rose , andsamuel p. roseEssay: Cycles and gradients in development of the cortex 124robert w. thatcher7 Brain bases of reading disabilities 133francine benes and jul iana par e -blagoev8 The neural correlates of reading disorder: functionalmagnetic resonance imaging 148jul iana par e -blagoev9 Patterns of cortical connection in children with learningproblems 168frank h. duffyEssay: The role of experience in brain development: adverseeffects of childhood maltreatment 176martin h. te icherPart III Watching Children Read10 Finding common ground to promote dialogue andcollaboration: using case material to jointly observechildrens behavior 181jane holmes bernste in11 Analyzing the reading abilities of four boys: educationalimplications 196susan brady12 First impressions: What four readers can teach us 217benita a . blachman13 Analysis of reading disorders from a neuropsychologicalperspective 227h. gerry taylor14 An educational/psychological perspective on the behaviorsof three children with reading disabilities 243joseph k . torgesen Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgContents xiPart IV Reading Skills in the Long Term15 The importance of comprehension in reading problemsand instruction 255joseph c . camp ioneEssay: Bring reading research to the trenches 261sandra pr iest rose16 What successful adults with dyslexia teach educatorsabout children 264rosal ie f ink17 Is a synthesis possible? Making doubly sure in researchand application 282david roseAppendix: Transcript and behavioral data from Profiles inReading Skills (Four Boys) 293Index 327 Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgFigures2.1 A nested model of dyslexia page 253.1 Ectopias in mice 485.1 Relation of counting speed to span 895.2a Growth rate of EEG coherence between frontal and posteriorcortex 895.2b Growth rate of working memory 905.3 Youth literacy as a function of parents education in sevencountries 936.1 Two developmental webs showing different pathways 1036.2 Pathway A for reading words: Developmental web withvisualgraphic/auditory branching 1066.3a Pathway B: Independence of reading and rhyming 1086.3b Pathway C: Independence of reading, letter identification,and rhyming 1086.4 Attractor pattern of hierarchical development 1126.5 Spreading pattern of hierarchical development: The Piageteffect 1136.6 A growth cycle of cortical connections that repeat for eachdevelopmental level 1166.7 Clusters of growth changes for two optimal levels acrossstrands in a web 1176.8 A series of spurts in development of relative energy in EEG 1186.9 Emergence of a new optimal level for abstract mappings ofarithmetic operations 1227.1 The three levels of representation of word knowledgenecessary for speech production. 1407.2 Left neglect in a dyslexic child of 7 years 11 months 1459.1 Coherence values for factor 16 in diverse tasks for learningdisabled and control children 1719.2 Pattern of cortical connection based on coherence (factor 16)associated with learning disorders 17213.1 A conceptual framework for neuropsychological assessment 228xii Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgList of figures xiiiA1 Jonathans alternating hand tapping task 307A2 Williams alternating hand tapping task 307A3 Brians alternating hand tapping task 307A4 Andrews alternating hand tapping task 307A5 Jonathans asynchronous hand tapping task 307A6 Williams asynchronous hand tapping task 307A7 Brians asynchronous hand tapping task 307A8 Andrews asynchronous hand tapping task 307A9 Rey-Osterrieth complex figure 308A10A Jonathans copying of Rey-Osterrieth figure 309A10B Jonathans immediate recall of Rey-Osterrieth figure 310A10C Jonathans delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth figure 311A11A Williams copying of Rey-Osterrieth figure 312A11B Williams immediate recall of Rey-Osterrieth figure 313A11C Williams delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth figure 314A12A Brians copying of Rey-Osterrieth figure 315A12B Brians immediate recall of Rey-Osterrieth figure 316A12C Brians delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth figure 317A13A Andrews copying of Rey-Osterrieth figure 318A13B Andrews immediate recall of Rey-Osterrieth figure 319A13C Andrews delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth figure 320A14 Jonathans handwriting sample 322A15 Williams handwriting sample 322A16 Brians handwriting sample 323A17 Andrews handwriting sample 323 Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgTables4.1. History of names for dyslexia. page 636.1. Response profiles for a Guttman scale with branch atstep 2. 1068.1. fMRI studies of phonological processing in dyslexic andnormal readers. 1568.2. fMRI studies of visual pathways in dyslexic and normalreaders. 1588.3. fMRI studies of temporal processing in dyslexic and normalreaders. 15911.1. Reading performance (number correct/number presented onfilm). 19911.2. Sample of Williams word and non-word reading errors. 20111.3. Sample of Brians word and non-word reading errors listedby error type (target response). 20211.4. Sample of Andrews word and non-word reading errors listedby error type (target response). 20413.1. Premises of child neuropsychological assessment. 22913.2. Case analysis of boys with reading disorders. 23014.1. Descriptive aspects of paragraph reading performance in fourchildren. 24514.2. Relative performance of children on four tasks. 24716.1. Self-reported problems of the 60 participants with dyslexia. 26616.2. Gender and topics of high interest reading (by author). 272A1. Demographic data for the four boys. 294A2. Tasks performed by the four boys. 297A3. Performances for rapid naming tasks. 299A4. Performances for untimed reading tasks. 302A5. Performances for timed reading tasks. 304A6. Performances for Rey-Osterrieth complex figure organizationand style. 321xiv Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgContributorsjane ashby, Ph.D., is a researcher at the University of Massachusetts atAmherst and teaches at Hampshire College.francine mary benes , M.D., Ph.D., is Professor of Psychiatry atMcLean Hospital.jane holmes bernste in, Ph.D., is Senior Associate in Psychology/Neuropsychology at the Childrens Hospital Boston.benita a . blachman, Ph.D., is Trustee Professor of Education andPsychology at Syracuse University.susan a. brady, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at University of RhodeIsland and a Senior Scientist at Haskins Laboratories.joseph c . camp ione , Ph.D., is Professor of Education (Emeritus) at theUniversity of California at Berkeley.robb ie case (deceased) was Professor of Education (Emeritus) and Direc-tor of the Institute of Child Study at the University of Toronto.verne s . caviness jr . , M.D., D.Phil., is the Chief of the Division ofPediatric Neurology at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Josephand Rose Kennedy Professor of Child Neurology and Mental Retardation atHarvard Medical School.terrence w. deacon, Ph.D., is Professor of Biological Anthropologyand Linguistics at the University of California at Berkeley.frank h. duffy, M.D., is Associate Professor of Neurology at HarvardMedical School and Director of the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory atthe Childrens Hospital Boston.rosal ie p. f ink , Ed.D., is Professor of Literacy at Lesley University.kurt w. f i scher , Ph.D., is Charles Warland Bigelow Professor and Direc-tor of the Mind, Brain, and Education Program at the Harvard GraduateSchool of Education.xv Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgxvi List of contributorsalbert m. galaburda , M.D., is the Emily Fisher Landau Professor ofNeurology and Neuroscience at Harvard Medical School and Chief of theDivision of Behavioral Neurology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.mary helen immordino-yang, Ed.D., holds a joint PostdoctoralFellowship at the Brain and Creativity Institute and the Rossier School ofEducation at the University of Southern California.e . jul iana par e -blagoev , Ed.D., is a Research Scientist at The MINDInstitute and Assistant Professor at the University of New Mexico Departmentof Psychology.david h . rose , Ed.D., is Co-Executive Director of the Center for AppliedSpecial Technology (CAST).l . todd rose is a doctoral candidate at the Harvard Graduate School ofEducation.samuel p. rose , Ph.D., (deceased) taught at the University of Colorado.sandra pr iest rose is a founding trustee of the Reading ReformFoundation.gordon f. sherman, Ph.D., is Executive Director of the NewgrangeSchool and Education Center in Princeton, NJ.h. gerry taylor , Ph.D., is Professor of Pediatrics at Case WesternReserve University.martin h. te icher , M.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Psychiatryat Harvard Medical School and Director of the Developmental BiopsychiatryResearch Program at McLean Hospital.robert w. thatcher , Ph.D., is Director of the NeuroImaging Labo-ratory at the Bay Pines VA Medical Center and an adjunct Professor ofNeurology at the University of South Florida College of Medicine.joseph torgesen, Ph.D., is the W. Russell and Eugenia Morcom Chairof Psychology and Education at Florida State University and Director of theFlorida Center for Reading Research.deborah waber , Ph.D., is Director of Research in the Department of Psy-chiatry at Childrens Hospital Boston and Associate Professor (Psychology)in the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School.maryanne wolf, Ed.D., is Director of the Center for Reading and Lan-guage Research and Professor of Child Development at Tufts University. Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgAcknowledgementsThis book and the collaborations that it reflects grew out of the creative effortsengendered by Mind, Brain, and Behavior (MBB), the Harvard Interfaculty Ini-tiative to promote cross-disciplinary dialogue about cognitive science, biology,and society. Supported by this broad effort, several faculty from Harvard andother Boston universities met regularly as a study group focusing on the devel-opment of brain and behavior, especially in the educational arena and otherculturally important domains. Beyond networking, MBB provided logistic andfinancial support for a conference in which researchers and practitioners frommore distant institutions came to Harvard to discuss the issue that is the focusof this book analyzing reading skills and problems by combining biology,cognitive science, and education to inform research and practice. From thisgroup and the conference the approach grew that we now call Mind, Brain,and Education (MBE). This book is the first publication from our group thatarticulates this new approach.We (the editors) especially thank the working group on brain and behaviordevelopment that started this effort: Francine Benes, Jerome Kagan, DeborahWaber, Maryanne Wolf, and two of us (Fischer and Bernstein). Equally essentialwere the doctoral students who helped convince the Harvard community that theMind, Brain, and Education approach was both worthwhile and sorely neededfor children and schools Donna Coch, Michael W. Connell, Juliana Pare-Blagoev, Kimberly Sheridan, and one of us (Immordino-Yang).For the logistics of the conference and book, Erma Larson provided ener-getic, sensitive support for the attendees and the editors. Stephanie Prady andNancy Rosenthal organized the logistics of the conference. Todd Rose dili-gently cleaned up the manuscript. Elizabeth Knoll of Harvard University Pressmade cogent suggestions for organizing the book. Sarah Caro of CambridgeUniversity Press supported our efforts to finish the book together through thevarious delays and tribulations that come inevitably from coordinating scholarsand practitioners from many diverse perspectives. Mary Kiesling did heroicwork preparing the final manuscript and coordinating efforts among contribu-tors. Jane Haltiwanger, Leonard Bernstein, and Kyle Yang provided emotionalsupport to the editors.xvii Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.orgxviii AcknowledgementsThe students in our classes and training programs played an essential rolein stimulating ideas for approaches to building connections between biology,cognitive science, and education. Most of all, they unknowingly supported uswith their confidence in the MBE endeavor and their energy and flexibility inpursuing it.Funding sources and intellectual support that helped sustain this work includethe Mind, Brain, and Behavior Initiative, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick P. Rose andSandra P. Rose, the Harvard Graduate School of Education, the ChildrensHospital Boston, and NICHD.Most of all, we thank the authors of the papers in this volume and the col-leagues who participated in the dialogue that shaped these papers at the confer-ence and in the MBB group. All the authors worked with us to create intellectualcoherence in the volume and to begin to fulfill some of the promise of the newapproach that connects mind, brain, and education to illuminate reading skillsand problems. Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.orgCambridge University Press978-0-521-85479-5 - Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading DisordersEdited by Kurt W. Fischer, Jane Holmes Bernstein, and Mary Helen Immordino-YangFrontmatterMore informationhttp://www.cambridge.org/0521854792http://www.cambridge.orghttp://www.cambridge.org