mind from brain
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DESCRIPTIONMind from brain
MIND FROM BRAINSelect MIND TOPICS from MENU on LEFTReduce Display ZOOM accordingly 05/08 - 11/20/08
MIND IS AN EMERGENT ABSTRACTION OF SELF OUT OF CORTICAL NEURONAL CIRCUIT ACTIVITY UTILIZING: - Sensory Inputs, Memory Storage & Recall - Thalamic Gating of inputs to- Cortical Regions: for Sensory Memory, for Emotion (Cingulate) for Basal Ganglial-Motor Control for Cognition (Prefrontal)
Open Copyright 2009 D.E. HillmanBrought to you by
MIND VS BRAIN The Brain and Body stand as physical elements forming operational components sustaining vertebrate life. Sensory-motor reflexes together with programmed movements, from basal ganglia, represent the bulk of brain operational control over body movement. In mammals advanced development of the cerebral cortex and thalamus has generated an emergent property of the functional brain THE MIND. The emanation of the MIND from sensory inputs defines: SELF with MEMORY and EMOTIONS, produces COGNITION forming frameworks of understanding and MAKES DECISONS for initiating motor actions expressing behavior and speech content. Brought to you by
MIND & BRAIN FUNCTIONSTwo principal roles of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are in: 1) operating motor control systems and 2) generation of the MIND. Motor controls are: a) spinal cord and brainstem reflex-control of voluntary muscles producing involuntary reflexes. Reflexes are direct sensory inputs to the spinal cord and brainstem eliciting motor responses in skeletal muscles), b) homeostatic motor control of involuntary muscles and gland secretions via sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, and c) programmed automatic motor control via the basal ganglia and cerebellum acting to produce basic and conditioned motor control of behaviors and speech capability.
Besides the control of reflexes, the BRAIN produces an emergent energy state, THE MIND, forming self-awareness and yields consciousness. The MIND manages sensory inputs and memories and associates them with event emotions. Using memories and emotions, the MIND forms frameworks of understanding expressing the intellect in cognition. Using intellect, the MIND makes decisions for initiating volitional behavior and speech content.
While patterned movements are programmed in the action generators, basal ganglia, producing behaviors and speech capability, the MIND makes decisions for selecting and initiating patterns of movement but has limited control over reflexes or the actual movement patterns themselves. Nevertheless, the MIND trains programs, consciously by trial and error testing in order to enhance automatic movement patterns represented by our movement finesse and behavior expressions.Brought to you by
COMPONENTS OF MINDCONSCIOUSNESSAwareness of:Sensory inputMotor responsesMEMORYMemory StorageMemory Recall Memory Association (Thought)Memory Retention and ForgettingMIND & VALUES DEFINED IN EMOTIONSurvival: Nutrition, ProcreationSelf-Esteem - Recognition of Self as based on Pleasure/Displeasure PrinciplesReinforcement of values by Culture and For the Greater Good of the SpeciesINITIATION OF BEHAVIOR AND SPEECHDecision Making for initiating patterns of movementDecision-Making for speech contentCOGNITION Structural/Functional Framework of UnderstandingDetermining Consequence of ActionsPerceived Spatial - Temporal Order of Events & Related StructurePREDICTION (INTUITION)ImaginationVisionPERSONALITY and SPEECH (Mind Initiated (volitional) Motor Actions) D E Hillman 5/1/ 2008Brought to you by
CNS COMPONENTS The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebral cortex. The cord and brainstem represent sensory nerve input regions except for olfaction. The cord and brainstem operate reflexes of spinal and cranial nerves. Basal ganglia (BG) are origins of patterned movements that are passed through the thalamus to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus is a timing gate for synchronizing sensory inputs, motor control and cognition to the cerebral cortex. The Cerebral Cortex is the primary source of MIND generating consciousness. Brought to you by
FLOW IN THE FUNCTIONAL MIND The flow of function in the conscious MIND is from sensory inputs or memory storage to emotion centers. Values are placed on incoming sensory inputs and memories by MIND. Emotions are associated with inputs and stored memories and are held in the cingulate gyrus for recall. MINDs major utilizations of memory is in forming frameworks of understanding (cognition) leading to intellect and in making decisions for motor actions of behaviors and speech content. Brought to you by
THE BASES OF MINDMIND has no comparable descriptive terms. The source of the conscious MIND is from synchronous functioning cortical pyramidal cells integrating sensory input, emotion, motor control and cognition from thalamic relay sources. The collective activity of pyramidal circuits yields a conscious abstraction of self-awareness and intellect that is expressed to the world through behaviors and speech. This synchrony is controlled by the thalamus allowing the intelligent MIND to integrate signals between 5 functional domains: 1) inputs to sensory cortices; 2) memory storage and recall; 3) emotion generation; 4) motor decision-making; and 5) cognition, forming a frame-work of understanding.
An understanding of the conscious MIND must include: 1) spinal cord and brainstem sensory-motor reflex organization, 2) thalamic gating of cortical sensory & motor inputs allowing sleep, 3) thalamic-cortical synchronization of sensory-motor data packets producing the awake conscious MIND, 4), emotion generation by amygdala, hippocampus and limbic cortical circuits, 5) basal ganglial patterned-reflexes that are initiated by intelligent decision-making of the conscious MIND and, 6) cognition, forming frameworks of understanding that emerge from the frontal lobe. Brought to you by
UNDERSTANDING THE MINDThe MIND emerges from phased-simultaneity of pyramidal cell inputs across four processing regions of the cerebral cortex that receive inputs by gating of inputs to the thalamus. The linking of temporal activity between the thalamus and cortex synchronizes activity states of cortical neurons across four cortical regions (primary sensory, emotion, cognition and motor) producing an energy state emanating as the MIND. The result is consciousness with the ability to reason and initiate willful behaviors and specify speech content. The essence of the conscious MIND appears as a melding of sensory inputs and memories into a temporal state with emotions and then through recall directs their passage to cognition centers for understanding and motor decision making. Two temporal indicators of the relationship linking the conscious-MIND and the cognitive-MIND are found in brain-wave signals. The first is the EEG signal that begins each cycle of the frequency from 1 to 40 Hz. The second signal is a longer signal that of high amplitude that appears with a latency from 300 to 600 milliseconds. The latter lasts for a second or more and appears to be the energy state of cognition and decision-making.Brought to you by
MIND & MEMORYOnly conscious and dreaming MINDs contribute to memory storage. The MIND is responsible for assembling memories from: 1) inputs to visual, auditory, olfactory, taste and body contact, 2) sensory responses and consequences arising from motor behavior or speech, and 3) emotions associated with sensory and motor events. Memories are distributed in modality cortices, hippocampus, medial temporal lobe, and cingulate, frontal and parietal cortices.Sensory MEMORY is distributed, broadly, across regions of the cerebral cortex. Sensory inputs to primary cortices are processed for similarities and differences. Details are processed in associational sensory cortices that surround primary sensory targets. Also primary and associational cortices provide parallel access to memory stores for comparisons with sensory inputs and processing for emotion and cognition. The MIND can not operate without a functional brain but the brain & body operate without the MIND. As soon as cerebral cortical or thalamic function is lost, the MIND looses consciousness. In addition, the MIND is separable from the BRAIN by the fact that consciousness is turned off during anesthesia, a contusion to the head or states of sleep, yet, the brain keeps on serving homeostatic body functions. Even when MIND-initiating motor-actions are quiescent, testing shows that basic reflex actions still remain. MIND without inputs from sensory systems or memory recall has difficulty to sustain consciousness and lacks ability to make decisions. Memory is the grist for planning and imagination by the MIND. Brought to you by
FORMATION OF MEMORYMEMORY has two states: the first is unconsolidated memory and the second is consolidated into circuitry. The first state is short term held by the physiological property called LTP (long term potentiation). This short term memory is neuron functional state that activates signaling genes, e.g. c-fos. These early genes trigger phenotypic genes related to protein production during the second state.
The second state occurs during sleep as the memory-consolidating phase that produces long-term memory. New proteins forming synapses are produced and inserted into synapses. These changes incorporate new sensory information or modifications to motor actions into the circuit. This upgrading of synaptic sites can only occur if LTP modifications are turned-off by sleep. Thalamic relay nuclei cease to activate pyramidal cells due to the slowing of the EEG to 0.5 to 4 Hz during sleep. This blocks all sensory inputs, memories and motor instructions by activ