methyl tertiary butyl ether (mtbe) full report

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PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEARMEMBER OF GROUP AND SUPERVISORS1 PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEARACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst and foremost, thank you to Allah S.W.T for giving us the strength to finish up this project report. Without Your Willingness we would not be able to complete this project. It wouldbeimpossibletoacknowledgeadequatelyall thepeoplewhohavebeen influential, directly or indirectly in forming this project.We would like to take this opportunity to express our deepest gratitude to our supervisors, EncikMohdImranBinZainuddinandPuanSunitaBinti Jobli whohas given us his constant encouragement constructive advises and his patient in monitoring our progress in this project.Our appreciation and specialthanks goes, Puan Hasnora BintiJafri, Puan Junaidah Binti Jai, Encik Aziz Bin Ishak for supplying the valuable information and guidance for this project.We greatly indebted to Encik Napis Bin Sudin for his cooperation and willingness to be interviewed and for provide us with invaluable information and for his resourcefulness in gathering material.Special thanks owe to Puan Masni Bt Ahmad for her willingness to be interviewed and for the painstaking care she has shown in assisting us throughout the project.We also would like to express our appreciation to the Malaysia Industrial Development Authority (MIDA), Pusat InformasiSirim Berhad, Petronas Resource Center, Jabatan PerangkaanMalaysiaandTiramKimiaSdn.Bhd. (KualaLumpur)fortheirgenerous supply of relevant documents and material needed research.Last but not least to all my lecturers, family, friends and collegues for their encouragement and kind support when we need it most.2 PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEARABSTRACTThe purpose for this MTBE or Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether plant is to produce 300,000 metric tonne/year. MTBE is the simplest and most cost effective oxygenate to produce, transportand deliver to customers. The additive works by changing the oxygenate / fuel ratio so that gasoline burns cleaner, reducing exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, fine particulates and toxic. Two units will beconsideredwhicharethefluidizations, (Snamprogetti)Unit andtheEtherification Unit. Therawmaterialsusedareisobutane, methanol, andwater asfeedstock. In addition, two types of catalysts are chromia alumina catalyzed compound in Snamprogetti Unit, while sulphonic ion exchanged resin catalyzed is used in the MTBE reactor. A good deal of catalyst has been devoted to improve the activity, selectivity, and the lifetime of the catalysts.IntheDesignProject 2, weemphasizeintheindividual chemical andmechanical designsforselectedequipmentsintheplant. ThechosenequipmentsareCatalytic Cracking Reactor, Multitubular Fixed Bed Reactor, MTBE Distillation Column, Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column and Heat Exchanger.Design Project 2 also includes Process Control, Safety, Economic Evaluation, Process Integration and as well as Waste Treatment, which are considered as group works.3 PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEARCONTENTSTITLEPAGEDECLARATION IICERTIFICATION IIIACKNOWLEDGEMENT VABSTRACT VILIST OF TABLESLIST OF FIGURESLIST OF NOMENCLATURESREPORT 1CHAPTER 1 PROCESS BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction 11.2 Historical Review of MTBE Production Process 21.2.1 UOP Oleflex Process 31.2.2 Philips Star Process 31.2.3 ABB Lummus Catofin Process 31.2.4 Snmprogetti Yartsingtez FBD Process 4CHAPTER 2 PROCESS SELECTION2.1 Method Consioderation 52.2 Detailed Process Description 72.2.1 Snaprogetti Yarsingtez fbd Process 72.2.2 MTBE Unit 82.2.3 Distillation Column Unit 82.2.4 Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit 9CHAPTER 3 ECONOMIC SURVEY3.1 Market Survey 103.1.1 World Market 103.2 Asia Market 113.3 Demand 113.4 Production Capacity 144 PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR3.5 Supply 143.6 Market Price 153.6.1 Methanol 153.6.2 Isobutane 163.6.3 Catalyst 163.6.4 Conclusion 163.7 Economic Analysis 173.7.1 Break Even Analysis 173.7.2 Data Calculation1 20CHAPTER 4 PLANT LOCATIONS & SITE SELECTION4.1 Plant Location 244.2 General Consideration On the site Selection 244.2.1 Location with Respect To Marketing Area 254.2.2 Raw Material supply 254.2.3 Transport Facilities 254.2.4 Availability Of Labor 254.2.5 Availability Of Utilities 264.2.6 Environmental Impact and Effluent Disposal 264.2.7 Local Community Considerations 264.2.8 Land (Site Consideration) 264.2.9 Political and Strategic Consideration 274.3 Overview on Prospective Locations 274.3.1 Teluk Kalong 284.3.2 Tanjung Langsat 284.3.3 Bintulu 294.4 Conclusion 33CHAPTER 5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION5.1 Introduction 345.2 Stack gas 355.2.1Gas Emission treatment 355.3 Wastewater Treatment 355.3.1 Wastewater characteristic 355.3.1a) Priority pollutants 365.3.1b) Organic 365.3.1c) Inorganic 375.3.1d) pH and Alkalinity 375.3.1e) Temperature 385.3.2 Liquid waste treatment 385.3.2a) Equalization treatment 385.3.2b) Solid waste treatment 395.3.3 Waste Minimization 415 PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEARCHAPTER 6 SAFETY CONSIDERATION6.1 Introduction 426.2 Material Safety Data Sheet 436.2.1 Isobutane 436.2.1.1 Product Information 43Physical & Chemical Properties 436.2.1.2 Immediate Health Effects 446.2.1.3 First Aid Measure 446.2.2 N-Butane 446.2.2.1 Handling and Storage 456.2.3 Methanol 456.2.4 MTBE 466.2.4.1 Physical State and Appearance466.2.4.2 Physical Dangers 466.2.4.3 Chemical Dangers 476.2.4.4 Inhalation Risks 476.2.5 TBA 476.2.5.1 Recognition 486.2.5.2 Evaluation 486.2.5.3 Controls 486.3 Hazard Identification & Emergency Safety & Health Risk 49CHAPTER 7 MASS BALANCE7.1 Snamprogetti -Yarsingtez FBD Unit 517.2 Separator 537.3 Mixer 537.4 MTBE Reactor 547.4.1 1st Reaction in rector 557.4.2 2nd Reaction in reactor 567.4.3 3rd Reaction in reactor 577.4.4 Overall reaction 587.5 Distillation Column 597.6 Liquid Extraction Column 607.7 Distillation Column 617.8 Overall reaction system; flow diagram 627.9 Scales Up Factor 63CHAPTER 8 ENERGY BALANCES8.1 Energy Equation 648.2 Energy balance: Sample of calculation 658.2.1 Pump 1 738.2.2 Cooler 1 758.2.3 Separator 768.2.4 MTBE Reactor 788.2.5 Pump 2 796 PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR8.2.6 Mixer 808.2.7 Expander 1 818.2.8 Cooler 1 828.2.9 Distillation Column 1 848.2.10 Cooler 2 868.2.11 Pump 3 878.2.12 Extraction Column 888.2.13 Pump 4 898.2.14 Pump 5 918.2.15 Distillation Column 2 928.2.16 Cooler 3 93CHAPTER 9 HYSYS 95APPENDICESREPORT 2CONTENTSPAGECHAPTER 1 CHEMICAL DESIGN AND MECHANICAL DESIGN SECTION 1CATALYTIC CRACKING DESIGN 1.1 Introduction 11.2 Estimation of Cost Diameter of Reactor 31.3 Calculation of TDH Height 41.4 Minimum Fluidization Velocity 41.5 Calculation for Terminal Velocity 51.6 Find the Value Kih 81.7 Find the value Eo 91.8 Calculation of Solid Loading 101.9 Calculation for Holding Time 121.10 Calculation for Pressure Drop 141.11 Determine the Direction and Flowrate 151.12 Design of Cyclone 171.13 Calculation for Mechanical Design 212.2 Mechanical Design2.2.1 Introduction 582.2.2 Design stress 592.2.3 Welded Joint Efficiency 597 PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR2.2.4 Corrosion allowance 592.2.5 Minimum thickness of cylindrical section of shell 592.2.6 Minimum thickness of domed head 602.2.7 Loading stress 612.2.7.1Dead weight load 611.2.7.1 Dead Weight of Vessel 611.2.7.2 Weight of the Tubes 621.2.7.3 Weight of Insulation 621.2.7.4 Weight of Catalyst 631.2.7.5 Total Weight 631.2.7.6 Wind Loading 631.2.7.7 Analysis of Stresses 642.2.8 Dead Weight Stress 652.2.9 Bending Stress 652.2.10 Radial Stress 662.2.11 Check Elastic Stability 672.2.12 Vessel Support 682.2.13 Skirt Thickness 682.2.14 Height of the Skirt 692.2.15 Bending Stress at Base of the Skirt 702.2.16 Bending Stress in the Skirt 702.2.17 Base Ring and Anchor Bolt Design 712.2.18 Compensation for Opening and Branches 732.2.19 Compensation for Other Nozzles 742.2.20 Bolted Flange Joint 742.2.20.1 Type of Flanges Selected 742.2.20.2 Gasket 752.2.21 Flange face 75SECTION 3 MTBE DISTILLATION COLUMN3.1 Introduction 783.2 Selection f Construction Material 793.3 Chemical Design 793.3.1 Determine the Number of Plate 813.3.2 Determination of Number of Plate 883.3.3 Physical Properties 893.3.4 Determination of Column Diameter 893.3.5 Liquid Flow Arrangements 903.3.7 Plate Layout 913.3.8 Entrainment Evaluation 913.3.9 Weeping Rate Evaluation 943.3.13 Number of Holes 953.3.14 Column size 963.4 Mechanical Design3.4.1Material construction3.4.2Vessel Thickness 983.4.3Heads and closure 983.4.4 Total Column Weight 998 PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR3.4.5 Wind Loads 1003.4.6 Stiffness Ring 1003.5 Vessel Support Design 100SECTION 4 DESIGN OF LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMN4.1 Introduction 1034.2 Chemical Design 1044.2.1 Choice of Solvent 1044.2.2 Estimation the Physical Properties 1044.2.3 Determination the Number of Stage 1054.2.4 Sizing of Sieve Tray 1074.2.5 Number of Holes 1074.2.6 Column Parameter 1074.2.7 Weeping Evaluation 1084.3 Mechanical Design 1104.3.1 Material Construction 1114.3.2 Vessel Thickness 1114.3.3 Design of Domed Ends 1124.3.4 Column Weight 1124.3.4.1 Dead Weight of Vessel 1134.3.4.2 Weight of Plate 1134.3.4.3 Weight of Insulation 1134.3.4.4 Total weight 1144.3.4.5 Wind Loading 1144.3.5 Analysis of Stress 1154.3.5. 1 Longitudinal & Circumferential Pressure Stress 1154.3.5.2 Dead weight 1154.3.5.3 Bending Stress 1154.3.5.4 Buckling 1164.3.6 Vessel Support Design 1174.3.6.1 Skirt Support 1174.3.6.2 Base Ring and Anchor 1194.3.7 Piping Sizing 122SECTION 5 HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN5.1 Introduction 1275.1.1 Designing the heater 1295.2 Chemical Design 1305.2.1 Physical Properties of the Stream 1305.2.2 The Calculation 1315.2.3 Number of Tubes Calculation 1335.2.4 Bundle and Shell Diameter 1345.2.5 Tube Side Coefficient 1355.2.6 Shell Side Coefficient 1375.2.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 1395.2.8 Tube Side Pressure Drop 1405.2.9 Shell Side pressure Drop

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