meridians and collaterals lecturer: qu hongyan. acupuncture or needling, is a type of therapy that...

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  • Slide 1
  • Meridians and collaterals Lecturer: Qu Hongyan
  • Slide 2
  • Acupuncture or needling, is a type of therapy that stimulates certain locations or points of the body, by manipulating needles or other similar instrument.
  • Slide 3
  • Moxibustion refers to a therapy utilizing ignited moxa wool to heat or cauterize the surface of the human body.
  • Slide 4
  • Cupping is a therapy in which a jar is attached to the skin surface using negative pressure created by introducing a flame into the cup or some other means of suction so as to form a localized congestion or blood stagnation to prevent or treat diseases.
  • Slide 5
  • The meridian theory, which is taken as an important component of the theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine, concentrates on the study of the distributions, physiological functions, pathological changes of the meridians as well as their relationships with the viscera, body constituents, sense organs and orifices, qi, blood and body fluids. It is the core of acupuncture theory. Preface
  • Slide 6
  • Development of needles Bian-stone needles Bone needles Stainless steel filiform needles
  • Slide 7
  • 1 Twelve divergent meridians The branch-foundation, tip-root, qi thoroughfare and four seas 5 Effects and Clinical application of meridian theories 4 3 2 Eight extra meridians Twelve regular meridians
  • Slide 8
  • Jing, meridians, means go through or a path . They are strong and large. They run longitudinally and interiorly within the body. Luo, that is collaterals, means something that connects or a net . They are the branches of the meridians, thin and small. They run transversely and superficially, and crisscross and net the whole body. trunk branches
  • Slide 9
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  • Slide 12
  • Meridian system Meridians Collaterals Fifteen connecting collaterals Superficial collaterals Tertiary collaterals Eight extra meridians Twelve divergent meridians Twelve regular meridians
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  • Nomenclature The nomenclature of the twelve regular meridians is based on three factors, which are hand or foot, yin or yang, and zang or fu organs. e.g. Lung meridian of hand-taiyin Large intestine meridian of hand-yangming Gallbladder meridian of foot-shaoyang
  • Slide 15
  • Nomenclature of the Twelve Regular Meridians Hand/FootYin/YangThree yang/Three yinThe Twelve Meridians Hand Yin TaiyinLung Meridian ShaoyinHeart Meridian JueyinPericardium Meridian Yang YangmingLarge Intestine Meridian ShaoyangSanjiao Meridian TaiyangSmall Intestine Meridian Foot Yin TaiyinSpleen Meridian ShaoyinKidney Meridian JueyinLiver Meridian Yang YangmingStomach Meridian ShaoyangGall Bladder Meridian TaiyangBladder Meridian
  • Slide 16
  • Six meridians of hand
  • Slide 17
  • Six meridians of foot
  • Slide 18
  • Pathways and flow of qi Hand Foot Head Chest or Abdomen Three yin meridians of hand Lung meridian of hand taiyin Pericardium meridian of hand jueyi Heart meridian of hand shaoyin Three yang meridians of hand Large intestine meridian of hand yangming Triple energizer meridian of hand shaoyang Small intestine meridian of hand taiyang Three yang meridians of foot Stomach meridian of foot yangming Gallbladder meridian of foot shaoyang Bladder meridian of foot taiyang Three yin meridians of foot Spleen meridian of foot taiyin Liver meridian of foot jueyi Kidney meridian of foot shaoyin
  • Slide 19
  • Head three yang meridian of hand three yin meridian of hand Chest Hand three yang meridian Abdomen of foot three yin meridian of foot Foot
  • Slide 20
  • Directions of twelve regular meridians Three yin meridians of hand run from chest to hand Three yang meridians of hand run from hand to head Three yang meridians of foot run from head to foot Three yin meridians of foot run from foot to abdomen and chest. If we extend our arms overhead, the yin meridians run upward while yang ones run downward
  • Slide 21
  • Distribution of the twelve regular meridians The Twelve Regular Meridians have lateral and symmetrical distribution on the head, face, trunk and limbs. The six yin meridians are distributed on the medial side of the limbs and on the chest and abdomen. The six yang meridians are distributed on the lateral side of the limbs and on the head, face and trunk.
  • Slide 22
  • Distribution in the trunk LocationThe first lateral line The second lateral line The third lateral line Head1.5cun bladder meridian Waist and back 1.5cun bladder meridian 3cun bladder meridian Abdomen0.5cun kidney meridian 2cun (stomach meridian 4cun spleen meridian Chest2cun kidney meridian 4cun (stomach meridian 6cun spleen meridian
  • Slide 23
  • Lung Large Intestine Stomach Spleen Heart Small Intestine Bladder Kidney Pericardium Triple energizer Gallbladder Liver Chest Tip of index finger Beside the nose Tip of great toe In the chest Tip of small finger Inner canthus Tip of small toe In the chest Tip of ring finger Tip of great toe Externa l canthu s
  • Slide 24
  • Connections Yin meridians and yang meridians connect in the hand or the foot. Two yang meridians with the same name connect in the head or facial region. Hand yin meridians and foot yin meridians connect in the chest.
  • Slide 25
  • Exterior-interior relationship Yin meridians, which are considered relatively inner, belong to zang organs and interact with fu organs. Yang meridians, which run relatively superficially, belong to fu organs and connect to zang organs. The heart meridian belongs to the heart and connect to the small intestine The small intestine meridian belongs to the small intestine and interact with the heart. i.e.
  • Slide 26
  • Lung meridian of hand-taiyin
  • Slide 27
  • Large intestine meridian of hand-yangming
  • Slide 28
  • Stomach meridian of foot-yangming
  • Slide 29
  • Spleen meridian of foot-taiyin
  • Slide 30
  • Heart meridian of hand-shaoyin
  • Slide 31
  • Small intestine meridian of hand-taiyang
  • Slide 32
  • Bladder meridian of foot-taiyang
  • Slide 33
  • Kidney meridian of foot-shaoyin
  • Slide 34
  • Pericardium meridian of hand-jueyin
  • Slide 35
  • Triple energizer meridian of hand-shaoyang
  • Slide 36
  • Gallbladder meridian of foot-shaoyang
  • Slide 37
  • Liver meridian of foot-jueyin
  • Slide 38
  • Eight Extra Meridians are the meridians whose courses are different from the twelve regular meridians, eight in all, namely Governor Vessel, Conception Vessel, Thoroughfare Vessel, Belt Vessel, Yin Link Vessel, Yang Link Vessel, Yin Heel Vessel and Yang Heel Vessel. The Eight Extra Meridians
  • Slide 39
  • Differences compared with twelve regular meridians T hey do not belong to any zang-fu organs directly; hey have no exterior-interior relationship amongst themselves hey travel in an extraordinary way compared to the twelve regular meridians A part from GV and CV which have their own points, the other meridians share the points with the twelve regular meridians.
  • Slide 40
  • Functions of Eight Extra Meridians They distributed longitudinally and horizontally among the twelve regular meridians, working not only as strengthening the association between the twelve regular meridians, but also as dominating and controlling qi and blood, as well as balancing yin and yang. They regulate the qi and blood of the regular meridians, such as in storage, drainage of the qi and blood. If the twelve regular meridians were likened to the rivers and great rivers, the eight extra meridians would be likened to the lakes and reserviors.
  • Slide 41
  • Physiological functions 1 regulates qi and blood of yang meridians and be named as sea of yang meridians 2 reflects the function of brain, kidney and spinal cord 3 governs reproduction Governor Vessel
  • Slide 42
  • Conception Vessel Physiological functions: 1 regulates qi and blood of yin meridians and be named as sea of yin meridians 2 regulates menstruation and pregnant fetus. Conception Vessel governs uterus and gestation
  • Slide 43
  • Thoroughfare Vessels Physiological functions: 1 regulates qi and blood of twelve regular meridians 2 governs reproduction the sea of twelve regular meridians the sea of five zang organs and six fu organs
  • Slide 44
  • Belt Vessel Physiological functions: Restrains the other meridians like a belt
  • Slide 45
  • Twelve divergent meridians Twelve divergent meridians are branches departing from the twelve regular meridians and traveling deeply into the body cavity. Twelve divergent meridians have four distribution characteristics, namely separating entering resurfacing and joining By the distribution of separating, entering, resurfacing and joining, the divergent meridians strengthening the bonds between the interior and exterior-paired regular meridians as well as with