marcus garvey, langston hughes, charles s. johnson
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DESCRIPTIONMarcus Garvey, Langston Hughes, Charles S. Johnson summary and biographies
- 1. Jamaican-born black nationalist who created a 'Back to Africa' movement in the United States. He became an inspirational figure for later civil rights activists. Born in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica on August 17th, 1887 At the age of 14 he left school and became a printer's apprentice where he led a strike for higher wages From 1910 to 1912, Garvey travelled in South and Central America and also visited London St. Anns Bay, Jamaica
2. Continued Returned to Jamaica and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Moved to Harlem, NY in 1916, where UNIA thrived Became a public speaker and urged African-Americans to be proud of their race and return to Africa, their ancestral homeland and attracted thousands of supporters Spoke across the country In 1919 Garvey founded the Black Star Line, to provide transportation to Africa, and the Negro Factories Corporation to encourage black economic independence Tried to persuade the government of Liberia in west Africa to grant land on which black people from America could settle, but was unsuccessful 3. Continued In 1922, Garvey was arrested for mail fraud in connection with the sale of stock in the Black Star Line, which had now failed Was sent to prison and later deported back to Jamaica In 1935 he moved to London Died June 10, 1940 Jamaica declared him the countries first national hero 4. Langston Hughes Born in Joplin, Missouri on February 1st, 1902 Began writing poetry when he moved to Lincoln Illinois to live with his mother and stepfather After graduating from high school, he spent a year in Mexico followed by a year at Columbia University in New York City. During this time, he held odd jobs such as assistant cook, launderer, and busboy Travelled to Africa and Europe working as a seaman 5. Continued In November 1924, he moved to Washington, D.C. Hughes's first book of poetry, The Weary Blues, (Knopf, 1926) was published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1926 Finished his college education at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania three years later In 1930 his first novel, Not Without Laughter, (Knopf, 1930) won the Harmon gold medal for literature 6. Continued Known for his insightful, colorful portrayals of black life in America from the twenties through the sixties. He wrote novels, short stories and plays, as well as poetry, and is also known for his engagement with the world of jazz and the influence it had on his writing He wanted to tell the stories of his people in ways that reflected their actual culture, including both their suffering and their love of music, laughter, and language itself Wrote humorous poems and geared them towards people who could simply read 7. Continued In addition to leaving us a large body of poetic work, Hughes wrote eleven plays and countless works of prose Died of complications from prostate cancer in May 22, 1967, in New York City 8. Born in Bristol, Virginia on July 24th, 1893 Was sent to boarding school at a young age and later sent to Virginia Union University in Richmond to study sociology Editor, Author, and Educator Trained in sociology at the University of Chicago, Johnson studied and wrote about race relations in the United States and abroad 9. He finished his degree although his studies were interrupted because he became an officer in France during World War I Principal author of The Negro in Chicago: A study of Race Relations and a Race Riot, 1919 - a landmark study of race relations sponsored by the Chicago Commission on Race Relations He moved to New York in 1921 and began work for the National Urban League as its national director of research and investigations; he also became the editor of the League's new magazine called Opportunity: a Journal of Negro Life. As editor, Johnson was instrumental in attracting, encouraging, and supporting those young Black writers and artists who produced the Harlem Renaissance. The annual Opportunity prizes recognized the achievements of 10. In 1926, Johnson was given the position of the Chair of the Sociology Department at Fisk University at Nashville He continued his support of the Harlem Movement 20 years later he became the 1st black president of the University Died in Louisville, Kentucky on October 27th, 1956. 11. Works Cited 1. Marcus Garvey." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. . 2. Langston Hughes." Poets.org. Academy of American Poets, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. . 3. Charles S. Johnson Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. . 4. Reuben, Paul P. "PAL: Charles S. Johnson (1893-1956)." PAL: Perspectives in American Literature. N.p., 02 Nov. 2011. Web. 31 Mar. 2014. .