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Langston Hughes Edna St. Vincent Millay. Poetry and Literary Devices. Before we read the poems, lets refresh our memories about: Similes Metaphors Symbolism Rhyme Scheme. Similes. A comparison that uses like or as Example: My dog is like a clown; he is so silly!. Metaphors. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Literary Devices

Langston Hughes Edna St. Vincent Millay

Poetry and Literary DevicesBefore we read the poems, lets refresh our memories about:

SimilesMetaphorsSymbolismRhyme SchemeSimilesA comparison that uses like or as

Example: My dog is like a clown; he is so silly!MetaphorsA comparison that does NOT use like or as

Example: My bird is an alarm clock. He wakes me up at 5 every morning!

An extended metaphor is one that extends-or lasts-through several sentences or paragraphs.Symbol An item that represents or stands for something else.A material object representing something immaterial.Example: People often use doves as a symbol of peace. Examples of Symbols

A dove is used as a symbol of The Holy Spirit. It is also often used as a symbol of peace.

A heart symbolizes love.

This sign symbolizes poison.

All around the world, the Statue of Liberty is a symbol of freedom.The peace symbolrepresents peace.The PoetsLangston HughesLangston Hughes was one of the foremost poets of the Harlem Renaissance.

The Harlem Renaissance was a period of immense growth in the area of arts by African Americans. Langston Hughes became the voice of many speaking about daily life and struggles of African Americans, as well as the beauty and strength of them. He wrote many poems about the joy of living as well as the hardships.

P.S. This is also one of my favorite poets!

Edna St. Vincent Millay

PoetPlaywrightMillay was an accomplished writer at an early age. When Millay was fifteen, she had her first poem published!Mother to Son by Langston HughesWell, son, I'll tell you:Life for me ain't been no crystal stair.It's had tacks in it,And splinters,And boards torn up,And places with no carpet on the floor --Bare.But all the timeI'se been a-climbin' on,And reachin' landin's,And turnin' corners,And sometimes goin' in the darkWhere there ain't been no light.So boy, don't you turn back.Don't you set down on the steps'Cause you finds it's kinder hard.Don't you fall now --For I'se still goin', honey,I'se still climbin',And life for me ain't been no crystal stair.

Well, son, I'll tell you:Life for me ain't been no crystal stair.It's had tacks in it,And splinters,And boards torn up,And places with no carpet on the floor --Bare.What does the staircase symbolize?

The tacks, splinter and torn-up boards symbolize what part of life?

The bare floors symbolize a time in life when the family is_______________When the staircase is compared to life, this makes it a metaphor.But all the timeI'se been a-climbin' on,And reachin' landin's,And turnin' corners,And sometimes goin' in the darkWhere there ain't been no light.What do you think the landings and corners symbolize? How do you feel after climbing twenty stairs and reaching a landing?What is it like when you walk through the dark?How does it make you feel? So boy, don't you turn back.Don't you set down on the steps'Cause you finds it's kinder hard.Don't you fall now --For I'se still goin', honey,I'se still climbin',And life for me ain't been no crystal stair.What advice is the mother giving her son? Is this advice that others should follow also?Because this metaphor lasted the entire poem, we will call it an extended metaphor.Well, son, I'll tell you:Life for me ain't been no crystal stair.It's had tacks in it,And splinters,And boards torn up,And places with no carpet on the floor --Bare.But all the timeI'se been a-climbin' on,And reachin' landin's,And turnin' corners,And sometimes goin' in the darkWhere there ain't been no light.So boy, don't you turn back.Don't you set down on the steps'Cause you finds it's kinder hard.Don't you fall now --For I'se still goin', honey,I'se still climbin',And life for me ain't been no crystal stair.

She hasnt had a smooth, easy lifeMother speaking to her sonObstaclesTimes of povertyContinuing PerseveranceMaking progressContinuing even in the darkest of times, when it seemed there was no hopeDont give up when life is hard and difficult.Dont give up or expect life to be easy. If I can keep going-so can you!Well, son, I'll tell you:Life for me ain't been no crystal stair.It's had tacks in it,And splinters,And boards torn up,And places with no carpet on the floor --Bare.But all the timeI'se been a-climbin' on,And reachin' landin's,And turnin' corners,And sometimes goin' in the darkWhere there ain't been no light.So boy, don't you turn back.Don't you set down on the steps'Cause you finds it's kinder hard.Don't you fall now --For I'se still goin', honey,I'se still climbin',And life for me ain't been no crystal stair.

What is the overall THEME of this poem? How do we know?

What would a summary be for this poem?

What emotions/feelings are expressed in this poem?

The Courage That My Mother Had by Edna St. Vincent MillayHow to Analyze a poem: 5 easy steps.

STEP 1: Read the poem. Look up any words that you do not understand in the dictionary.

STEP 2: Read the poem out loud. Look at the structure of the poem. How many stanzas are there? Is there a rhyme or rhythm that gives it a particular feeling?

STEP 3: Look through the poem slowly and try to find examples of figurative language (metaphor, simile and personification). Look for examples of imagery and sensory language. How do these things affect you? What do they express?

STEP 4: Read the poem again thinking about the speaker. What kind of person are they? What is their situation? How do they think and feel and what are they trying to express?

STEP 5: Reread the title of the poem and see if it gives you a clue about what the poem is about. Reread the poem one last time and think about the theme. Write down what you think the poem is about.

The courage that my mother hadWent with her, and is with her still:Rock from New England quarried;Now granite in a granite hill.

The golden brooch my mother woreShe left behind for me to wear;I have no thing I treasure more:Yet, it is something I could spare. Oh, if instead shed left to meThe thing she took into the grave!That courage like a rock, which sheHas no more need of, and I have.

The courage that my mother hadWent with her, and is with her still:Rock from New England quarried;Now granite in a granite hill.

The golden brooch my mother woreShe left behind for me to wear;I have no thing I treasure more:Yet, it is something I could spare. Oh, if instead shed left to meThe thing she took into the grave!That courage like a rock, which sheHas no more need of, and I have.

Stanza OneStanza ThreeStanza TwoThree quatrains make up this poem. Think of the word QUAtrain. What other words have a similar letter pattern?

QuarterQuartQuadQuadrangle

What patter do you see?

The courage that my mother hadWent with her, and is with her still:Rock from New England quarried;Now granite in a granite hill.

The golden brooch my mother woreShe left behind for me to wear;I have no thing I treasure more:Yet, it is something I could spare. Oh, if instead shed left to meThe thing she took into the grave!That courage like a rock, which sheHas no more need of, and I have.

ABAB

CDCD

EFEFThe courage that my mother hadWent with her, and is with her still:Rock from New England quarried;Now granite in a granite hill.Based on what the speaker says, what can we assume happened to the mother?What is granite used for? What does a granite hill symbolize?The golden brooch my mother woreShe left behind for me to wear;I have no thing I treasure more:Yet, it is something I could spare. The brooch may symbolize the mother, but it is a material item. Even though the speaker treasures it, she wishes for something else instead.Oh, if instead shed left to me The thing she took into the grave!That courage like a rock, which sheHas no more need of, and I have.When a comparison is made using the word like we call this a simile.courage like a rock

The courage that my mother hadWent with her, and is with her still:Rock from New England quarried;Now granite (in a granite hill).

The golden brooch my mother woreShe left behind for me to wear;I have no thing I treasure more:Yet, it is something I could spare. Oh, if instead shed left to meThe thing she took into the grave!That courage like a rock, which sheHas no more need of, and I have.

The courage is compared to a rock -rocks are hard, strong, and stay still- never wavering. Her mothers courage was the same-strong and steady.The rock is now granite in a granite hill. Granite is used for tombstones; a granite hill would be a cemetery. Millay implies that the courage is now buried with her mother.

The courage that my mother hadWent with her, and is with her still:Rock from New England quarried;Now granite in a granite hill.

The golden brooch my mother woreShe left behind for me to wear;I have no thing I treasure more:Yet, it is something I could spare. Oh, if instead shed left to meThe thing she took into the grave!That courage like a rock, which sheHas no more need of, and I have.

Millay treasures /cares for the golden brooch as a symbol of her mother-but she is aware that the gold, while treasure of value is only a material good. Millay uses the word treasure to show the contrast between treasure of material value and treasure as a verb to mean that she cherishes the item.

The courage that my mother hadWent with her, and is with her still:Rock from New England quarried;Now granite in a granite hill.

The golden brooch my mother woreShe left behind for me to wear;I have no thing I treasure more:Yet, it is something I could spare. Oh, if instead shed left to meThe thing she took into the grave!That courage like a rock, which sheHas no more need of, and I have.

The speaker in the poem is q

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