“i, too, sing america” (langston hughes) (langston hughes) the harlem renaissance rebirth of...

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  • Slide 1
  • I, too, sing America (Langston Hughes) (Langston Hughes) The Harlem Renaissance Rebirth of African Culture & Expression in America
  • Slide 2
  • Renaissance Rebirth or revival Rebirth or revival Refers to the European Renaissance that took place from 1300-1600 Refers to the European Renaissance that took place from 1300-1600 Born in Florence, Italy Spirit of innovation, curiosity, & adventure in fields ranging from architecture to science and fine art.
  • Slide 3
  • Harlem Renaissance Upsurge of African American cultural expression that took place in Harlem, New York during the 1920s. Upsurge of African American cultural expression that took place in Harlem, New York during the 1920s.
  • Slide 4
  • The Harlem Renaissance Langston HughesW.E.B. Du Bois Countee CullenMarcus Garvey Claude McKayAlain Locke Zora Neale Hurston Richard Wright
  • Slide 5
  • The Great Migration The racial composition of the nation's cities underwent a decisive change during and after World War I. In 1910, three out of every four black Americans lived on farms, and nine out of ten lived in the South. World War I changed that profile. Hoping to escape tenant farming, sharecropping, and peonage, 1.5 million Southern blacks moved to cities. During the 1910s and 1920s, Chicago's black population grew by 148 percent; Cleveland's by 307 percent; Detroit's by 611 percent.
  • Slide 6
  • Confined to all-black neighborhoods, African Americans created cities- within-cities during the 1920s. The largest was Harlem, in upper Manhattan, where 200,000 African Americans lived in a neighborhood that had been virtually all-white fifteen years before Confined to all-black neighborhoods, African Americans created cities- within-cities during the 1920s. The largest was Harlem, in upper Manhattan, where 200,000 African Americans lived in a neighborhood that had been virtually all-white fifteen years before
  • Slide 7
  • The Harlem Renaissance The movement for black pride found its cultural expression in the Harlem Renaissance--the first self-conscious literary and artistic movement in African American history. The movement for black pride found its cultural expression in the Harlem Renaissance--the first self-conscious literary and artistic movement in African American history.
  • Slide 8
  • During the 1920s, Harlem became the capital of black America, attracting black intellectuals and artists from across the country and the Caribbean. Soon, the Harlem Renaissance was in full bloom. The poet Countee Cullen eloquently expressed black artists' long- suppressed desire to have their voices heard: "Yet do I marvel at a curious thing: To make a poet black, and bid him sing!"
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Many of the writers and artists associated with the Harlem Renaissance became an elite class of black Americans. For some, this status was comfortable; others, however, felt uneasy at being soremoved from the majority of black Americans. Also debated was just what kind of writing, or art, should be created by African Americans. Because of the racist views of most white Americans, some African American leaders argued that black artists had a responsibility as "representatives of the race." For writers, this means certain restrictions in what they could write, and how they could depict black characters. Many writers rebelled against this notion and argued for their own freedom; and in exercising this freedom, new kinds of written works were created. Langston Hughes's poetry, for example, seeks to imitate the sound of jazz and blues music, rather than stick with more traditional poetic meter. Zora Neale Hurston's fiction relies on black folklife and dialect, and expresses thoughts about life and relationships among people in very fresh ways. Many of the writers and artists associated with the Harlem Renaissance became an elite class of black Americans. For some, this status was comfortable; others, however, felt uneasy at being soremoved from the majority of black Americans. Also debated was just what kind of writing, or art, should be created by African Americans. Because of the racist views of most white Americans, some African American leaders argued that black artists had a responsibility as "representatives of the race." For writers, this means certain restrictions in what they could write, and how they could depict black characters. Many writers rebelled against this notion and argued for their own freedom; and in exercising this freedom, new kinds of written works were created. Langston Hughes's poetry, for example, seeks to imitate the sound of jazz and blues music, rather than stick with more traditional poetic meter. Zora Neale Hurston's fiction relies on black folklife and dialect, and expresses thoughts about life and relationships among people in very fresh ways.Langston Hughes'sZora Neale Hurston'sLangston Hughes'sZora Neale Hurston's
  • Slide 11
  • Harlem was also the home of a new and very popular musical sound of the 1920s, jazz, which catered to both a black and a white audience. Fletcher Henderson's sound, big-band "swing," often called "sweet" jazz, was the dominant music of the 1920s among white New Yorkers. Harlem was also the home of a new and very popular musical sound of the 1920s, jazz, which catered to both a black and a white audience. Fletcher Henderson's sound, big-band "swing," often called "sweet" jazz, was the dominant music of the 1920s among white New Yorkers.
  • Slide 12
  • Henderson's main competitor was the Cotton Club orchestra led by another famous Harlem musician, Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington, also popular among white audiences. In fact, the Cotton Club, Harlem's best known and gaudiest nightclub, was for white patrons only. Vocalists Mamie Smith and Ethel Waters were also famous musicians who regularly performed in Harlem, as frequently for black as for white audiences. The sound of their music was more "bluesy," and very early recordings of their music became "hit records" within the African American community.
  • Slide 13
  • Is truly an American artform Is truly an American artform Evolved from African folk music, European harmonies, American gospel sounds, & plantation work songs that flourished during & after slavery Evolved from African folk music, European harmonies, American gospel sounds, & plantation work songs that flourished during & after slavery Sorrow Songs- The Blues evolved Sorrow Songs- The Blues evolved Jazz
  • Slide 14
  • Jazz Ragtime & Dixieland Jazz came from New Orleans in the 1890s. Ragtime & Dixieland Jazz came from New Orleans in the 1890s. Louis Armstrong was born and raised in New Orleans, LA (1901-1971). Louis Armstrong was born and raised in New Orleans, LA (1901-1971). Grew up in extreme poverty and sent to reform school Learned to play the coronet (trumpet) there Gained prominence as a big band musician Pioneered improvisational music or scat Nicknamed Satchmo
  • Slide 15
  • Louis Armstrong Listen to Louis Listen to Louis What a Wonderful World What a Wonderful WorldWhat a Wonderful World Jeepers Creepers Jeepers CreepersJeepers Creepers St. James Infirmary St. James InfirmarySt. James Infirmary
  • Slide 16
  • Other Famous Jazz Musicians Bessie Smith Empress of the Blues Bessie Smith Empress of the Blues Duke Ellington Duke Ellington Billie Holiday Billie Holiday Dizzy Gillispie Dizzy Gillispie Ella Fitzgerald Ella Fitzgerald Listen to Billie Holidays Without Your Love Without Your Love
  • Slide 17
  • Claude McKay McKay had established himself as a poet, McKay had established himself as a poet, publishing two volumes of dialect verse, Songs of Jamaica (1912) and Constab Ballads (1912). Having heard favorable reports of the Work of Booker T. Washington, McKay enrolled at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama with the intention of studying agronomy; it was here that he first encountered the harsh realities of American racism, which would form the basis for much of his subsequent writing. He soon left Tuskegee for Kansas State College in Manhattan, Kansas. He was finally able to publish two poems, "Invocation" and "The Harlem Dancer," under a pseudonym in 1917. *Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber, and reclamation*
  • Slide 18
  • "If We Must Die" During the period of racial violence against blacks known as the Red Summer of 1919, McKay wrote one of his best-known poems, the sonnet, "If We Must Die," an anthem of resistance later quoted by Winston Churchill during World War II. The generation of poets who formed the core of the Harlem Renaissance, including Langston Hughes and Counte Cullen, identified McKay as a leading inspirational force, even though he did not write modern verse. His innovation lay in the directness with which he spoke of racial issues and his choice of the working class, rather than the middle class, as his focus. If we must die, let it not be like hogs Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot, While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs, Making their mock at our accursd lot. If we must die, O let us nobly die, So that our precious blood may not be shed In vain; then even the monsters we defy Shall be constrained to honor us though dead! O kinsmen! we must meet the common foe! Though far outnumbered let us show us brave, And for their thousand blows deal one death- blow! What though before us lies the open grave? Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack, Pressed to the w