manifest destiny

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Manifest Destiny, Annexation of Texas, Oregon Trail

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  • 1. Looking Westward pp. 348-359

2. Manifest DestinyManifest Destiny Writer John OSullivan coined the phrase in 1845 Destined by God & history to expand from coast to coast Fit w/ nationalism movement Racial motives for expansion Racial purity & superiority of the American race Expansion opposed by some, including Clay Would re-open debate of spreading slavery westward 3. TexasTexas 1803Claimed by U.S. in LA Purchase 1819Given to Spain as part of Adams-Onis Treaty 1821Becomes part of Mexico as Mexico gains its independence, American settlement is encouraged 183530K Americans living in Texas 1836Americans in Texas declare their independence from Mexico/Texas gains independence 1845After much debate, the U.S. annexes Texas; Mexico breaks diplomatic ties w/ U.S. JQA & AJ had both tried to purchase TX previously 4. Oregon TerritoryOregon Territory Claimed by both Brits (George Vancouver) & the U.S. (Robert Gray) 1818Agreed to joint occupation 1820s/1830sFew white settlers, mostly fur traders 1836Marcus & Narcissa Whitman est. mission 1843Oregon Trail popularized; 5K settlers w/in next 2 yrs. 1846Despite 54 40 or Fight, Polk settles border at 49 N (same as today) 1847Cayuse Indians attack & kill Whitmans 5. Election of 1844Election of 1844 Polk ran on a pro- expansion platform Clay avoided the issue of annexing Texas 6. TrailsTrails Oregon Trail California Trail Mormon Trail Santa Fe Trail *See map on p. 353 7. Life on the TrailLife on the Trail Jumping off towns Independence, MO; St. Joseph, MO & Council Bluffs, IA Mostly family units until Gold Rush; hired guides 2,000 miles; 4-6 months Various hardships: Weather, disease (cholera & typhoid fever), rugged terrain Native Americans often acted as guides & trade partners; occasional conflict, but often sensationalized *More deaths from accidental gunshots than Native attacks 8. Mexican WarMexican War Mexico refused to recognize Texas independence Border dispute (Rio Grande or Neuces?); see map on p. 356 Polk sends Zachary Taylor to TX & tells navy to capture CA ports if Mexico declares war Polk then offered to buy disputed areas (Slidel, $25 million for NM & CA) War declared in May of 1846; overwhelmingly supported by Congress War had many critics Ulysses S. Grant, Abraham Lincoln, Henry David Thoreau See quotes on p. 357 9. Mexican WarMexican War Stephen Kearny captured Santa Fe w/ no opposition (1846) Kearny & Fremont captured California (1846) Bear Flag Revolt Winfield Scott captures Mexico City (1847) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) Mexican Cession (see map on p. 358) U.S. paid $15 million Some wanted All Mexico! 10. Wilmot ProvisoWilmot Proviso What is the status of slavery in the newly acquired territory? David Wilmot, from PA, anti-slavery Democrat Proviso prohibited slavery in new territory Passed House, but not Senate Debate lingered; sectionalism intensified