Managing Borrowed Material In-text Citations and Blending Quotes.

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  • Managing Borrowed MaterialIn-text Citations and Blending Quotes

  • Avoiding PlagiarismIn addition to your Sources Cited

    In-text Citations, a.k.a. Parenthetical Citations, a.k.a. Citations

    Most basic format: (Last page #)

    Should act as a link back to your Sources Cited bread crumbs

  • When to use CitationsQuotations (Verbatim)ParaphrasesUncommon Facts/DetailsStatistics*When in doubt, cite your source!

  • CITATIONSIdentifies the source and page number (if available), usually at the close of a sentence before the end punctuation:

    (Smith 376).

    *Note that there is NO COMMA between the author and page number!

  • CITATIONSWhat about resources I get from general websites? What do I use for a page number? In this case, the latest version of MLA Style says that you do not need to include a page number.So, your citation might simply look like this: (Smith) or (Name of Web Resource if No Author.

  • Blending QuotationsUsing a lead-in (an introductory expression)

    EXAMPLES:a. According to Dr. William McKenzieb. A recent study conducted by the University of Wisconsin explainsc. Michael Smith believes

  • Blending QuotationsStrategies for Blending Quotations:

    #1: Lead-in, Quote (Last #).

    **This is probably the format you will use most often. It is the most basic format.

    **Notice two things:1. The citation is OUTSIDE the quotations marks!2. The end punctuation FOLLOWS THE CITATION!

  • Blending QuotationsStrategies for Blending Quotations:

    #2: Lead-in w/ authors name mentioned, Quote (#).

    **See the example on Slide #10

  • Blending QuotationsStrategies for Blending Quotations:

    #3: Lead-in w/ author being discussed in entire section, Quote (#).

    EXAMPLE: (In an essay analyzing Willa Cathers O Pioneers!, using quotes form Cathers work throughout the entire section or essay)

    Frank Shabata never planned to shoot his wife and Emil. Proof of this fact is found when the author writes, When Frank took up his gun . . . he had not the faintest purpose of doing anything with it (261).

  • Blending QuotationsStrategies for Blending Quotations:

    #4: Lead-in,Quote (Word).

    **In this case, no authors name is available, so use a recognizable word from the title of your sourcebe sure to italicize it, put quotes around it, etc. depending on the type of source (as it appears on your Sources Cited page)!

  • Blending QuotationsStrategies for Blending Quotations:

    #5: Lead-in, Quote (Last).

    **In this case, no page number is available (such as a website, for example) which would be evident from a glance at your Sources Cited page.

  • To Comma or Not to CommaLead-ins that use verbs like says and writes are usually followed by a comma

    EXAMPLE:Cather suggests that Emil and Maries story is symbolically described in nature when she writes, But the stained, slippery grass told only half the story (270).

  • To Comma or Not to CommaWhen the word that is used in a lead-in before the quote, a comma is usually unnecessary

    EXAMPLE:Cather suggests that Emil and Maries story is symbolically described in nature, telling the read that the stained, slippery grass told only half the story (270).

  • To Comma or Not to CommaUse a colon (:) if the lead-in is an independent clause (i.e. it could stand alone as a sentence by itself) and you are using words like the following, as follows, etc.

    EXAMPLE:Cather suggests that Emil and Maries story is symbolically described in nature in the following passage: But the stained, slippery grass told only half the story (270).

  • To Comma or Not to CommaIf you are blending a brief quotation that fits into your sentence smoothly as the subject, object, or modifier in the sentence, a comma is often unnecessary

    EXAMPLE:Cather suggests that Emil and Maries story is symbolically described by the stained, slippery grass (270).

  • Helpful VerbsDo not overuse say/said and write/wrote. There are other verbs you can use in your lead-in!

    Avoid searching for unusual or overly-impressive verbs like expostulated or asseverated.

    MLA prefers that you keep these verbs in the PRESENT TENSE: use says vs. said, for example.

  • ELLIPSISWhat is an ellipsis? Three spaced periods--> . . .

    When do we use an ellipsis?When you have deleted words within a verbatim quote you are borrowing from your source material

  • ELLIPSISMLA style states that the ellipsis should be enclosed in brackets [. . .]WHY? It shows that you, the writer, have taken something out, rather than the person you are quoting.You do not need to do this for my class.

    Short phrases or clauses from your source material can be quoted without an ellipsis UNLESS the phrase could stand alone as a sentence without the ellipsis.

  • ELLIPSISEXAMPLE:Original source says: Cold Mountain has wonderful acting, including a bravura performance by Nicole Kidman, a fine script, good editing, and marvelous filmography by Anthny Minghella.

    Blended quote with ellipsis: Roger Ebert praised the film, saying, Cold Mountain has wonderful acting, . . . a fine script, good editing, and marvelous filmography . . . (12).

  • BLOCK QUOTATIONSAlso known as long quotes

    For direct quotes only!

    Use only for a quote of 4-7 lines of typed text

    Should not be used in shorter essays (use only in papers of 5 pages or more in length)

  • BLOCK QUOTATIONS

    Introduce the quote, then skip down to the next line, TAB 2x, and DO NOT INDENT FURTHER

    No quotation marks are used here (unless they appear in the original)

    Include the citation at the close of the quote (period comes BEFORE the citation this time)

  • BLOCK QUOTATIONSEXAMPLE: W.E.B. DuBois, a great African American scholar and writer, describes the phenomenon of segregation as follows:It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at ones self through the eyes of others, of measuring ones soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. (2)

    Notice: Even though the block quote is only one sentence, it takes up 6 lines of typed text. You could have multiple sentences in your block quote, but do not exceed 7 lines of text!

  • PUNCTUATIONDOUBLE QUOTES ( )For verbatim quotes taken from source

    SINGLE QUOTES ( )For quotes within quotes--if it is quoted using double quotes in your source, and you want to use it in your paper, it would appear: QUOTE

    PERIOD ( . )When the quote is followed by a parenthetical citation, the period FOLLOWS the citation

  • PUNCTUATIONBRACKETS [ ] Square brackets are used within a quote for purposes of identification, clarification, or to signify information you have added

    SLASH ( / )Avoid using the and/or construction in your writingUse the slash to separate two closely related words or lines of poetry written consecutively

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