longitudinal joint density and permeability in asphalt concrete

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  • LONGITUDINAL JOINT DENSITY AND PERMEABILITY IN ASPHALT CONCRETE

    FINAL REPORT FHWA-OK-08-07

    ODOT SPR ITEM NUMBER 2197

    by

    Stephen A. Cross, P.E. Professor

    and

    Sushanta Bhusal

    Graduate Research Assistant

    COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE and TECHNOLOGY STILLWATER, OKLAHOMA

    OSU: AA-5-17667

    A Report on Research Sponsored by

    THE OKLAHOMA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

    March 2009

  • ii

    TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. Report No.

    FHWA-OK-08-07 2. Government Accession No.

    3. Recipients Catalog No.

    4. Title and Subtitle Longitudinal Joint Density and Permeability in Asphalt Concrete

    5. Report Date March 2009 6. Performing Organization Code

    7. Authors Stephen A. Cross and Sushanta Bhusal

    8. Performing Organization Report No. AA-5-17667

    9. Performing Organization Name and Address Oklahoma State University Civil & Environmental Engineering 207 Engineering South Stillwater, OK 74078

    10. Work Unit No. 11. Contract or Grant No.

    Item 2197

    12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Oklahoma Department of Transportation Planning & Research Division 200 N.E. 21st Street, Room 3A7 Oklahoma City, OK 73105

    13. Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report 11/02/06 12/31/08

    14. Sponsoring Agency Code

    15. Supplementary Notes

    16. Abstract Low longitudinal joint density has been identified as one of the major issues relating to poor asphalt pavement performance. Low longitudinal joint density can lead to premature raveling of the joint and the lower density results in increased permeability of the pavement. Increased permeability allows water to easily enter the pavement resulting in increased susceptibility to moisture induced damage or stripping. The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) does not currently have a test method or specification that addresses the problem of low longitudinal joint density. The objective of this study was to obtain the necessary field and laboratory test data to provide information around which a test method and/or specification for control of longitudinal joint density could be written. Three recently constructed pavements were selected for field testing. One pavement was on a county road and the other two pavements were ODOT construction projects. Two or three locations from each project were sampled and tested for a total of seven test sites. Field testing at each site consisted of measuring in-place permeability, measuring pavement density using an electromagnetic device (OHD L-14 Alternate Method B) and obtaining pavement cores at five locations at each test site. Field permeameters used included an NCAT permeameter, a Kentucky air induced permeameter (AIP) and a Romus air permeameter. Laboratory permeability (OHD L-44) was determined on pavement cores. The results from pavement density testing, core density testing, field permeability testing and laboratory permeability testing were analyzed to determine relationships between field permeability, pavement density and laboratory permeability. The suitability of using field permeability at longitudinal joints for control of longitudinal joint density and permeability was evaluated. 17. Key Words Permeability, Pavement Density, NCAT

    Permeameter, AIP, Romus Permeameter

    18. Distribution Statement No restriction. This publication is available from the office of Planning & Research Division, Oklahoma DOT.

    19. Security Classification. (of this report) Unclassified

    20. Security Classification. (of this page) Unclassified

    21. No. of Pages 54

    22. Price

  • iii

    SI (METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS Approximate Conversions to SI Units Approximate Conversions from SI Units

    Symbol When you

    know Multiply by To Find Symbol Symbol When you know Multiply by To Find Symbol

    LENGTH LENGTH in inches 25.40 millimeters mm mm millimeters 0.0394 inches in ft feet 0.3048 meters m m meters 3.281 feet ft yd yards 0.9144 meters m m meters 1.094 yards yd mi miles 1.609 kilometers km km kilometers 0.6214 miles mi

    AREA AREA

    in square inches 645.2 square

    millimeters mm mm square

    millimeters 0.00155 square inches in

    ft square feet 0.0929 square meters m m

    square meters 10.764

    square feet ft

    yd square yards 0.8361 square meters m m

    square meters 1.196

    square yards yd

    ac acres 0.4047 hectares ha ha hectares 2.471 acres ac

    mi square miles 2.590 square

    kilometers km km square

    kilometers 0.3861 square miles mi

    VOLUME VOLUME

    fl oz fluid ounces 29.57 milliliters mL mL milliliters 0.0338 fluid

    ounces fl oz

    gal gallons 3.785 liters L L liters 0.2642 gallons gal

    ft cubic feet 0.0283 cubic

    meters m m cubic

    meters 35.315 cubic feet ft

    yd cubic yards 0.7645 cubic

    meters m m cubic

    meters 1.308 cubic yards yd

    MASS MASS

    oz ounces 28.35 grams g g grams 0.0353 ounces oz lb pounds 0.4536 kilograms kg kg kilograms 2.205 pounds lb

    T short tons

    0.907 megagrams Mg Mg megagrams 1.1023 short tons

    T

    (2000 lb) (2000 lb)

    TEMPERATURE (exact) TEMPERATURE (exact) F degrees (F-32)/1.8 degrees C C degrees 9/5+32 degrees F

    Fahrenheit Celsius Celsius Fahrenheit

    FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS lbf poundforce 4.448 Newtons N N Newtons 0.2248 poundforce lbf

    lbf/in poundforce 6.895 kilopascals kPa kPa kilopascals 0.1450 poundforce lbf/in per square inch per square inch

  • iv

    The contents of this report reflect the views of the author(s) who is responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the views of the Oklahoma Department of Transportation or the Federal Highway Administration. This report does not constitute a standard, specification or regulation. While trade names may be used in this report, it is not intended as an endorsement of any machine, contractor, process or product.

  • v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS page

    LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................... vii LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................ viii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................1

    PROBLEM STATEMENT ...................................................................................1 OBJECTIVE .........................................................................................................2 SCOPE ..................................................................................................................2 BENEFITS ............................................................................................................2 IMPLEMENTATION ...........................................................................................2

    Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................3 PERMEABILITY STUDIES ................................................................................3 LABORATORY PERMEAMETER ....................................................................5 FIELD PERMEAMETERS ..................................................................................6

    NCAT Field Permeameter ........................................................................6 Kentucky Air Induced Permeameter (AIP) ...............................................8 Romus Air permeameter ...........................................................................9

    Chapter 3 TEST SITES AND TEST PLAN ...................................................................13

    TEST SITES .......................................................................................................13 TEST PLAN........................................................................................................13

    Field Sampling and Testing ....................................................................13 Laboratory Testing ..................................................................................17

    Chapter 4 TEST RESULTS ............................................................................................19 MIX PROPERTIES ............................................................................................19

    Gradation, Asphalt Content and Gmm ...................................................19 Unit Weight .............................................................................................19

    FIELD PERMEABILITY ...................................................................................19

    Chapter 5 ANALYSIS OF DATA ..................................................................................26 PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENTS..............................................................26

    Permeability vs. In-Place Voids ..............................................................27 Correlations Between Permeameters ......................................................30 Summary .................................................................................................34

    PAVEMENT DENSITY VS. PERMEABILITY ...............................................34 Percent Compaction ...............................................................................34 Difference in Percent Compaction .........................................................

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