Logic Fallacies Debate Class Production Spain Park High School Hoover, Alabama 2011-2012 1

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Slide 2 Logic Fallacies Debate Class Production Spain Park High School Hoover, Alabama 2011-2012 1 Slide 3 ARGUMENT RESPONSE or PERSUASION METHOD that seems to make sense but does not really make sense that seems to be logical but is not really logical Definition of a Logic Fallacy 2 Slide 4 Ad Hominem (Personal Attack) Definition: attacking the character of the person advancing the argument. http://www.logicalfallacies.info/relevance/ad-hominem/ Ad hominem arguments seek to discredit positions by discrediting those who hold those positions. 3 Slide 5 Bandwagon Fallacy Definition: proving an argument or persuading others by citing its growing popularity 4 Slide 6 Gamblers Fallacy Definition: believing that a random event can become non-random Slide by Robert James 5 Slide 7 Genetic Fallacy Definition: when an idea is either accepted or rejected because of its source, rather than its merit. Source: http://www.logicalfallacies.info/relevance/genetic/ 6 Slide 8 Moralistic Fallacy Definition: the informal fallacy of assuming that whichever aspect of nature which has socially unpleasant consequences cannot exist 7 Slide 9 Naturalistic Fallacy Definition: Uses statements about how things should be to prove statements about how things are. 8 Slide 10 Red Herring Definition: A completely irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/red-herring.html 9 Slide 11 Weak Analogy Definition: comparing two or more things that aren't genuinely comparable. Slide by Tyler Pennington 10 Slide 12 The following fallacies are Irrelevant Appeals. Definition: influencing what people think without using true evidence Slide by (Brad Prosch) 11 Slide 13 Appeal to Antiquity/Tradition Definition: This fallacy assumes that older ideas are better, that the fact that an idea has been around for a while implies that it is true. 12 Slide 14 Appeal to Authority Definition: proving or persuading by someone who claims to be an authority 13 Slide 15 Appeal to Consequences Definition: an attempt to convince by suggesting good consequences for believing or bad consequences for not believing. 14 Slide 16 Appeal to Force Definition: an attempt to persuade using threats. Latin name argumentum ad baculum literally means argument with a cudgel. 15 Slide 17 Appeal to Novelty Definition: claims that an idea or proposal is correct or superior, exclusively because it is new and modern 16 Slide 18 Appeal to Pity Definition: attempts to persuade using emotion specifically, sympathyrather than evidence. 17 Slide 19 Appeal to Popularity Definition: an idea must be true simply because it is widely held. This is a fallacy because popular opinion can be, and quite often is, mistaken. Hindsight makes this clear. 18 Slide 20 Appeal to Poverty Definition: an argument based on how poor a person or thing is Slide by Chandler Moore 19 Slide 21 Appeal to Wealth Definition: an argument that assumes that someone is better simply because they are wealthier or that something has better quality simply because its more expensive. Slide by (Austin Moore) 20 Slide 22 Fallacy of Ambiguity Definition: The presence of two or more possible meanings in any passage. Also, a fallacy in which the same term is used in more than one way 21 Slide 23 Accent Fallacies Definition: Accent fallacies are fallacies that change the meaning of a set of words based on how they are spoken. 22 Slide 24 Definition: saying something must be false if there is no proof that its true OR saying something is true if there is no proof it is false. Arguing from Ignorance 23 Slide 25 Begging the Question / Circular Reasoning Definition: Attempt to defend a claim by using the claim itself Slide by Emily Hale 24 Slide 26 Complex Question Fallacy Definition: an unfair phrasing of a question that makes it impossible to answer yes or no 25 Slide 27 Cum Hoc Fallacy Definition: when it is assumed that because two things occur together, they must be causally related. This, however, does not follow; correlation is possible without causation. 26 Slide 28 False Dilemma / Bifurcation Fallacy Definition: A limited number of options (usually two) is given, while in reality there are more options. 27 Slide 29 Hasty Generalization Fallacy Definition: A hasty generalization draws a general rule from a single, perhaps atypical, case. It is the reverse of a sweeping generalization see next slide 28 Slide 30 Sweeping Generalization Fallacy Definition: Applies a general statement too broadly. (different from hasty generalization see previous slide) 29 Slide 31 Post Hoc Fallacy Definition: declares proof by saying: After this, therefore because of this 30 Slide 32 Slippery Slope These arguments falsely assume that one thing must automatically lead to another. 31 Slide 33 Subjectivist Fallacy Definition: disbelieving a conclusion by saying it is not a fact, just an opinion 32 Slide 34 Tu Quoque Fallacy Definition: assuming that because someone else has done a thing, there is nothing wrong with doing it. 33 Slide 35 Sources http://www.logicalfallacies.info/ 34