Post on 09-Oct-2015
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DESCRIPTIONAll about emotional fallacies!
3. Emotional Fallacies
#3. Emotional FallaciesBy: Khalid Shams, Tarique Shams and Clair LeeEmotional ArgumentsEmotional Arguments are:Used frequently by many writersCan be powerful and suitable in many circumstancesUses the manipulation of the recipient's emotions, rather than valid logic, to win an argument.
CScarce TacticsUsed by Politicians, advertisers, and public figures by peddling their ideas by scaring peopleExageration of possible dangers well beyond their likelihoodAlso used to stampede legitimate fears into panic or prejudiceTo reduce complicated issues to simple threats or to exaggerate a possible danger well beyond its actual likelihood.
CScare Tactics ExampleBecause of the possibility of poisoning of Halloween candy by some people who give it out to trick-or-treaters, communities should ban trick-or-treatingCEither-or Choices Reduces complicated questions, which can be effectively answered in multiple different ways, to only two, diametrically opposed, possible answers.Well-intentioned strategies to get something accomplished Become Fallacious arguments when they reduce a complicated issue to excessively simple termsDesigned to obscure legitimate alternativesCEither-or Choices ExamplesParents use this all the time.Eat your broccoli, or you wont get dessert
Either you support the president in everything he says or you are not a patriotic American
CSlippery SlopeTo greatly exaggerate the supposedly inevitable future consequences of an action by suggesting one small step will initiate a process that will necessarily lead the way to a much bigger result.States that one small first step leads to a chain of related events resulting in some significant effect. Argument becomes wrongheaded when a writer exaggerates the likely consequences of an action , usually to frighten readers. KSlippery Slope ExampleIf I make an exception for you then I have to make an exception for everyone.
KParade of HorrorsThe speaker argues against taking a certain course of action by listing a number of extremely undesirable events which will result from the action.Its power lies in the emotional impact of the unpleasant predictionsSimilar to slippery slope fallacy
TParade of Horrors ExampleIf you dont get an A on this test, you will fail the class, will looked down on you, you will become a dropout, and then youll become homeless.TOverly Sentimental AppealsUses tender emotions excessively to distract readers from factsAre often highly personal and focus attention on heart warming/gripping situations that make readers feel guilty if they opposeTOver Sentimental Appeals ExampleThat boy scout troop made an old ladys day by visiting and entertaining her in her nursing home; we should give generously to the boy scouts as a result.
TBandwagon Appeals Urge one to follow the same path others are takingRather than thinking independently about where to go, its often easier to get on board the bandwagon with everyone else.Suggesting that simply because a lot of others are doing it, you should too.
KBandwagon Appeals ExampleIf Everyone jumps off a cliff, will you too?Everyone else is displaying a flag, or a support our troops sticker on their car; therefore, you should too.KSpecial PleadingApplying standards to other circumstances, while making certain circumstances exempt from the same critical criteria, without providing adequate justification. Special pleading is often a result of strong emotional beliefs that interfere with reasonTSpecial Pleading ExampleMom: Yes, I do think that all drunk drivers should go to prison, but your honor, he is my son! He is a good boy who just made a mistake!
TQ1: What is this an example of?Because of the possibility of a terrorist hijacking or a mechanical failure, flying on a plane is too dangerous and should be avoided altogether.KA1: Scarce Tactics Uses fear to stop or warn one from doing something.Exaggeration of possible dangers well beyond their likelihood
KQ2: What is this an example of?Everyone else is going out and getting drunk tonight, so you should too.KA2: Bandwagon AppealSuggesting that simply because a lot of others are doing it, you should too.KQ3: What is this an example of?Either you worship God or you worship Satan.KA3: Either-or ChoicesTo reduce complicated questions, which can be effectively answered in multiple different ways, to only two, diametrically opposed, possible answers.KQ4: What is this an example of?If I give you extra credit then I would have to give everyone extra credit. KA4: Slippery SlopeOne small step leads to a bigger resultKQ5: What is this an example of?Superstition is a belief or practice resulting from ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust in magic or chance, or a false conception of causation -- unless it is astrology.TA5: Special Pleading The person in the example rejects all other sources of superstition, but the superstitious belief of their preference is exempt from these criteria.TQ6: What is this an example of?That celebrity is suffering a lot of pain and anguish after breaking up with his girlfriend and coming through drug and alcohol rehabilitation treatment; he is a role model for all of us, and needs us to support him by buying his albums and going to his movies. KA6: Over Sentimental AppealRelyies entirely on manipulatively heart-warming or heart-wrenching appeals to emotion to win support for what has not been otherwise rationally justified.KQ7: What is this an example of?If you get your drivers license, youll get a bad car, lose a lot of money on gas, and die in a car accident.TA7: Parade of HorrorsThe speaker argues against taking a certain course of action by listing a number of undesirable events which will result from the actionT