Lecture 59: Symbols of Tibetan Buddhist Art Mr Chairman ... 59: Symbols of Tibetan ... we come this evening to the fifth lecture in ... ‘The Schools of Tibetan Buddhism’. Thirdly on ‘The Dalai Lama; ...

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  • Lecture 59: Symbols of Tibetan Buddhist Art

    Mr Chairman and Friends,

    As you have just heard, we come this evening to the fifth lecture in our series, An Introductionto Tibetan Buddhism; and we are having this series, we are having this course on TibetanBuddhism specifically, because of the very definite interest which does exist, amongst somepeople, in this particular subject, this particular branch as we may say, of the total Buddhisttradition. As youve just heard, weve completed already four lectures in this series, whichmeans that we are half way through the total course. So this might be a good point at which, notonly to recapitulate a little, but also to take stock of our position generally, especially as thewhole course, the whole series of lectures falls quite naturally into two halves. The first fourlectures, as already just mentioned, were first of all on How Buddhism Came to Tibet. Then onThe Schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Thirdly on The Dalai Lama; his reincarnations, andfourthly, and lastly, the subject we had last week, Monks and Laymen in Buddhist Tibet.

    Now these four talks which weve had so far form, as it were, a single group. Theyre all inter-related, theyre all interconnected on a single plane, a single level, as it were, because theyre allin character mainly historical and, as it were, institutional. If I may say so, all in a sense a trifleexoteric.

    Now the remaining four lectures of the series, these will be on first, The Symbols of TibetanBuddhist Art. Secondly, on The Four Foundation Yogas of the Tibetan Tantra. Thirdly onTibetan Buddhist Meditation, and then finally we consider the subject of The Future ofTibetan Buddhism.

    And just as the first four lectures formed a, more or less, self-contained group, mainly dealingwith the historical and institutional aspect of Tibetan Buddhism, in the same way the second fourlectures also form a sort of natural group, but this time the emphasis, the interest if you like, ismore specifically religious and practical; even in a sense a trifle more - in the case of one or twolectures at least - esoteric; and it may therefore well be that the second series of four is of greaterinterest to some people at least, than the first series of four in the total course.

    Now today we are concerned with the subject of the Symbols of Tibetan Buddhist Art. Many ofyou, if not most of you, Im sure, have seen examples of Tibetan Buddhist art, either Tibetanpainted scrolls - rather colourful objects which the Tibetans call Thangkas - ritual implementslike dorjes and bells and so on; and it may be that youve been able to appreciate them as art,appreciate and admire their beautiful colours, shapes and so on, but you may not have been ableto understand the underlying symbolism of these particular works of art, and for this reason, onaccount of its lack of acquaintance with the symbolism, perhaps youve been unable toappreciate the religious significance of these works of Tibetan Buddhist art. And therefore it ishoped that this lecture may help to throw just a little light into what is perhaps, from the Westernpoint of view, one of the darkest corners of Tibetan Buddhism.

    Now before we start, just a few words in general about Tibetan Buddhist art generally speaking.Tibetan Buddhism itself as we saw at the very beginning of this series, is a direct continuation of

  • Indian Buddhism. Its almost as though Indian Buddhism when it died in India itself was reborn,took a new birth, a new incarnation if you like, on the soil of Tibet. And just as TibetanBuddhism is a continuation of the Indian Buddhism, in the same way Tibetan Buddhist art is adirect continuation mainly of Indian Buddhist artistic traditions. Speaking more specifically, wemay say that Tibetan Buddhist art, Tibetan Buddhist religious art, because as we shall see thereis no other practically, continues the Indian Buddhist artistic traditions of the Pala dynasty. ThePala dynasty representing the last phase of Indian Buddhism, the most highly developed phase ofIndian Buddhism in eastern India right down to about twelve or thirteen hundred AD. Andespecially, we may say, Tibetan Buddhism continued that Indian Buddhist Pala dynasty artistictradition in matters of iconography, the way in which images, the way in which Buddhas andBodhisattvas and dakinis, and so on, and Dharmapalas, are depicted. Apart from the Indianinfluence, there is admittedly some Nepalese Buddhist influence on the art of Buddhist Tibeta,but then Nepalese Buddhist art itself was very deeply influenced by the Pala dynasty Indian arttraditions.

    As for Chinese influence that, we may say, is very secondary. The chinese influence on TibetanBuddhist art shows itself mainly in matters of detail and in the applied arts. For instance, if welook at the thangkas, the painted scrolls, then we shall see that the iconography of the mainfigure or figures - the colour in which they are represented, whether red or blue or green, theimplements which they bear, the type of expression, the various gestures, the ritual implements,the insignia, the emblems - these are all strictly determined by the Indian Buddhisticonographical traditions. But the details; when it comes to little things like the way in whichyou paint mountains or clouds or streams or waterfalls or fruits or flowers, these things reflectvery definitely Chinese artistic tradition. So that one finds in the thangka for instance, which isone of the main expressions of Tibetan Buddhist art, one finds in the thangka a very charmingsort of contrast. One finds the Indian tradition reflected in the iconography, the main figure orfigures - even their features, even their expressions, and one finds side by side with this Chineseinfluence reflected in the natural objects like the flowers and the fruit and the streams and themountains and especially perhaps the clouds. Chinese influence, as one might have expected ismuch more pronounced in those thangkas and others specimens of religious art produced ineastern Tibet in the areas adjacent to China itself. So far as decorative art is concerned one findsthat many Chinese art motifs have been incorporated into the Tibetan tradition. For instance onefinds almost everywhere in Tibetan Buddhist applied art the well known Chinese symbols of thephoenix and the dragon. The phoenix of course represents the yin principle, the dragonrepresents the yang principle. The yin principle, that is to say the cold, dark, negative feminineprinciple, and the dragon representing the yang, the bright, the hot, the positive, the masculineprinciple. And these two - the phoenix and the dragon - symbolising the yin and the yang forcesin the universe - there are represented in Tibetan art exactly as in Chinese art itself. Theres nodifference at all. Whether they appear woven into carpets or carved into the woodwork ofshrines, the Tibetan phoenix and the Tibetan dragon exactly reproduce their original Chineseprototypes.

    So that we may say if we want to generalise about Tibetan Buddhist art that it is a sort ofblending, a sort of fusion of Indian and Chinese elements. If you want to go a bit farther than thiswe may say that the specifically religious component of the art is Indian, whereas the secularcomponent tends to be Chinese. In many examples, in many specimens of Tibetan Buddhist art,

  • these two components, the religious and the secular, the Indian and the Chinese, these exist sideby side, but sometimes in the best examples, in the supreme examples of Tibetan Buddhist art,one gets a perfect fusion, a perfect blending, a mutual assimilation as it were, of these Indian andthese chinese elements. And then one may say one gets Tibetan art at its best, at its most perfect,and then it is neither Indian nor Chinese, nor both together, but specifically and uniquely anddistinctively and characteristically Tibetan. One may say at the same time though that theoriginal Tibetan contribution is rather meagre. Tibetan Buddhist art draws its religiousinspiration from India; its secular, more specifically aesthetic inspiration from China; it fusesthem into something unique, something perhaps incomparable, but it derives very little, it drawsvery little from purely indigenous sources.

    One may say perhaps that the original Tibetan contribution to Tibetan Buddhist art is representedprincipally by two things: One, is Tibetan religious architecture. For instance there is the verywell known, the most wonderful example of the Potala, the palace or the monastery or temple -its all three combined - of the Dalai Lama at Lhasa. This was originally of course a secularbuilding. It was originally a sort of castle of the kings of Tibet, but it was transformed by thegreat fifth Dalai Lama and his Prime Minister into something much more characteristically,much more definitely, Tibetan. The sort of thing which we all know, which we are all familiarwith from photographs and pictures. The style of architecture which one finds in Tibet was, ofcourse, determined to a great extent by climatic conditions. Tibet is a very very cold place. Its aplace of terrific winds and so on, so one needs protection from these things. And at the sametime the nature of the Tibetan religious architecture was determined or is determined by thenature of the materials available. Its probably not generally realised that in Tibet, whereas onehas plenty of stone and plenty of rock for building purposes, one has very very little woodindeed. The greater part of Tibet is completely non-forested. One just has a few bushes, a fewshrubs but very very few trees. So wood is not used generally for building purposes. Its not usedfor fuel. For fuel they usually burn cakes made of yaks dung. So this factor also plays its part;the fact that stone is available in vast quantities but hardly any wood.

    So one sees these two facts contributing to determine some of the most distinctive features of theTibetan religious architecture. To begin with you find enormously thick walls. Some of the wallsIm told are ten and twelve and fifteen feet thick, like the thickest of our castle walls in Europe,and this is to keep out the cold and to keep out the frost and the damp. And at the same time thelines are usually very very simple. The Tibetans are rather fond of vertical lines which slopeslightly inwards, and they are also fond of flat roofs, and this is the sort of basic pattern, thebasic scheme. And when one gets these most characteristic of all religious buildings, themonasteries or gompas, and when one finds them built up in the mountains, sometimes on cragsandr spurs of rock, when one sees them rising out of the rock, rising out of the mountain, its justas though the gompa, the monastery is just a sort of natural growth of the mountain. Its asthough it had grown straight up out of the living rock. You cant see really where the mountainends and where the monastery begins. This is true of the Potala, perhaps above all but its alsotrue of practically all the monasteries and temples and gompas generally in Tibet. They seem tobe, at least from a distance continuations of the mountains themselves.And this particular feature, this particular characteristic of Tibetan religious architecture isbrought out very well in a number of paintings by Lama Anagarika Govinda. Im sure most ofyou have heard his name; many of you I know have read either his Foundations of Tibetan

  • Mysticism or his Way of the White Clouds - he is well known as a writer, but not so manypeople are aware of the fact that Lama Govinda is not only a very great writer on Buddhism, butalso a very great Buddhist artist, and inasmuch as he has sojourned for quite a while in Tibet andbeen fascinated by the Tibetans seen generally, quite a number of his paintings, which areusually in pastels, depict these magnificent, rather barren, rocky Tibetan landscapes, with thesemagnificent monasteries or gompas - at heights many many thousands of feet above sea level -growing, as it were out of the living rock of the mountains. And this fact as he has represented,as he has depicted it, seems to possess a very deep symbolical significance of its own. It isnt asthough religion, the religious life, the monastic life, is sort of stuck on to the secular life, sothat you can see where the two join, you can see the crack as it were. It isnt like that. Its asthough the one grows up quite naturally out of the other as the sort of culmination andperfection of the other. And looking at these paintings of Lama Govinda showing thesemountains, showing the gompas on them one gets this sort of feeling, this sort of impressionveryvery strongly indeed. One can see that same sort of thing if one looks not just at paintings ofthis kind but even at ordinary photographs taken by travellers and visitors, of the great monasticshrines of Tibet. One can see the way in which their lines continue the lines of the mountains, sothat, as Ive said, the buildings seem to grow out of the rock itself. So this we may say is thefirst original indiginous Tibetan contribution to Tibetan Buddhist art. The religious, especiallythe monastic architecture.. This is specifically Tibetan. This owes nothing to India. This owesnothing to China.

    And secondly, the second indigenous Tibetan contribution, we may mention the remarkablecolour sense of the Tibetans. The remarkable awareness of and sensitivity to colour, especiallyas shown, especially as represented by the thangka paintings, the Tibetan painted scrolls. In thecourse of the first lecture when I was speaking about Tibet generally, about the generalconditions that prevail there, I mentioned the remarkable clarity of the atmosphere. Apparentlywhen you get 12,000 feet above sea level, as you do when you got to Tibet, when you emergethrough the passes which lead from India in to Tibet, when youre at this height of 12,000 feet ormore above sea level, you rise as it were not only above the mountains, not only above theclouds, but above all the impurities which we usually encounter in the atmosphere. You riseabove, of course, fog and smoke and smog and smutch and things of this sort, and you findyourself, perhaps for the first time in your life, in a completely clear, a completely crystalline,atmosphere, and to your astonishment you can see scores, perhaps even hundreds of miles, if youare high enough up. Its so clear and its so transparent. And Lama Govinda has described thistoo very very beautifully and very very powerfully in his book, The Way of the White Clouds.

    So when everything is so clear, when everything is so transparent, so translucent, so sparkling, ifyou like; when as I said in the earlier lecture the sky is really blue. In this country we never see ablue sky. You may think that you see a blue sky but what you see is not really blue. Its a sort ofmuddy impure colour. Its sort of clouded over because you are looking up at the blue skythrough a sort of mist, through a sort of fog, and you dont usually become aware of this becauseon...

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